Influence of Starch Content on the Thermal and Viscoelastic Properties of Syndiotactic Polypropylene/Starch Composites

Authors

  • N. Ahmad Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
  • F. Ahmad Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia
  • I. Alenezi Department of Chemical and Material Engineering, College of Engineering, Northern Border University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

In this study, syndiotactic Polypropylene/Starch (sPP/starch) composites were prepared using a solution mixing technique. The thermal characterization was performed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and the melting point was measured for all polymer composites. The thermal degradation temperature was measured using thermal gravimetric analysis. The viscoelastic measurements were performed using the Atomic Rheometric Expansion System (ARES). Both melting point and thermal degradation temperatures were found to decrease with increasing starch content. Moreover, the elastic modulus was found to decrease when the starch content increased.

Keywords:

aeration, melting point, sPP/starch composites, thermal degradation temperature, elastic modulus, frequency sweep test

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

D. J. Arriola, E. M. Carnahan, P. D. Hustad, R. L. Kuhlman, and T. T. Wenzel, “Catalytic Production of Olefin Block Copolymers via Chain Shuttling Polymerization,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5774, pp. 714–719, May 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1125268

V. C. Gibson, “Shuttling Polyolefins to a New Materials Dimension,” Science, vol. 312, no. 5774, pp. 703–704, May 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1127258

A. Ghanbari, M.-C. Heuzey, P. J. Carreau, and M.-T. Ton-That, “Morphological and rheological properties of PET/clay nanocomposites,” Rheologica Acta, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 59–74, Jan. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-012-0667-1

G. K. Jatav, R. Mukhopadhyay, and N. De, “Characterization of Swelling Behaviour of Nanoclay Composite,” International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 1560–1563, 2013.

M. Doi and S. F. Edwards, The Theory of Polymer Dynamics. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 1988.

L. J. Fetters, D. J. Lohse, D. Richter, T. A. Witten, and A. Zirkel, “Connection between Polymer Molecular Weight, Density, Chain Dimensions, and Melt Viscoelastic Properties | Macromolecules,” Macromolecules, vol. 27, no. 17, pp. 1639–4647, Aug. 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00095a001

A. Eckstein et al., “Determination of Plateau Moduli and Entanglement Molecular Weights of Isotactic, Syndiotactic, and Atactic Polypropylenes Synthesized with Metallocene Catalysts,” Macromolecules, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1335–1340, Feb. 1998. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma971270d

J. M. Carella, W. W. Graessley, and L. J. Fetters, “Effects of chain microstructure on the viscoelastic properties of linear polymer melts: polybutadienes and hydrogenated polybutadienes,” Macromolecules, vol. 17, no. 12, pp. 2775–2786, Dec. 1984. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00142a059

S. Bagheri-Kazemabad et al., “Morphology, rheology and mechanical properties of polypropylene/ethylene–octene copolymer/clay nanocomposites: Effects of the compatibilizer,” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 72, no. 14, pp. 1697–1704, Sep. 2012. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2012.06.007

M. Sarkar, K. Dana, S. Ghatak, and A. Banerjee, “Polypropylene-clay composite prepared from Indian bentonite,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 23–28, Feb. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12034-008-0005-5

Y. Xiang, Z. Peng, and D. Chen, “A new polymer/clay nano-composite hydrogel with improved response rate and tensile mechanical properties,” European Polymer Journal, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2125–2132, Sep. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2006.04.003

C. Liu, J. He, E. van Ruymbeke, R. Keunings, and C. Bailly, “Evaluation of different methods for the determination of the plateau modulus and the entanglement molecular weight,” Polymer, vol. 47, no. 13, pp. 4461–4479, Jun. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2006.04.054

J. D. Ferry, Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 3rd ed. New York, NY, USA: John Wiley & Sons, 1980.

E. Stefanescu, “A Study of Rheological and Thermodynamic Properties of Polymer-Clay Gels and Multilayered Films,” Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University, 2008.

S.-Y. Gu, J. Ren, and Q.-F. Wang, “Rheology of poly(propylene)/clay nanocomposites,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 2427–2434, 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/app.13403

N. Ahmad, R. Di Girolamo, F. Auriemma, C. De Rosa, and N. Grizzuti, “Relations between Stereoregularity and Melt Viscoelasticity of Syndiotactic Polypropylene,” Macromolecules, vol. 46, no. 19, pp. 7940–7946, Oct. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma401469a

N. Ahmad and E. Fouad, “Influence of Clay Contents on Rheology of Syndiotactic Polypropylene/Clay Composites,” Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1537–1543, Apr. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-016-2389-7

N. Ahmad, E. Fouad, and F. Ahmad, “Effect of Shear Flow on Crystallization of Sydiotactic Polypropylene/Clay Composites,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 3108–3112, Aug. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2079

J. Ren, A. S. Silva, and R. Krishnamoorti, “Linear Viscoelasticity of Disordered Polystyrene−Polyisoprene Block Copolymer Based Layered-Silicate Nanocomposites,” Macromolecules, vol. 33, no. 10, pp. 3739–3746, May 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma992091u

A. Leygue, C. Bailly, and R. Keunings, “A differential tube-based model for predicting the linear viscoelastic moduli of polydisperse entangled linear polymers,” Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 28–34, Jan. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnnfm.2005.10.003

D. K. Bangwar, M. A. Soomro, N. A. Laghari, M. A. Soomro, and A. A. Buriro, “Improving the Bond Strength of Rice Husk Ash Concrete by Incorporating Polymer: A New Approach,” Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2595–2597, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1791

Y. H. Lin, “Number of entanglement strands per cubed tube diameter, a fundamental aspect of topological universality in polymer viscoelasticity,” Macromolecules, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 3080–3083, May 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00178a024

S. Ng and H. Justnes, “Influence of dispersing agents on the rheology and early heat of hydration of blended cements with high loading of calcined marl,” Cement and Concrete Composites, vol. 60, pp. 123–134, Jul. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2015.04.007

W. Zheng, X. Wu, and Y. Huang, “Impact of polymer addition, electrolyte, clay and antioxidant on rheological properties of polymer fluid at high temperature and high pressure,” Journal of Petroleum Exploration and Production Technology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 663–671, Feb. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13202-019-0732-8

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
N. Ahmad, F. Ahmad, and I. Alenezi, “Influence of Starch Content on the Thermal and Viscoelastic Properties of Syndiotactic Polypropylene/Starch Composites”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7228–7232, Jun. 2021.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 146
PDF Downloads: 155

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)