Spectral Re-Growth Suppression in the FBMC-OQAM Signal Under the Non-linear Behavior of a Power Amplifier


  • J. Jake Department of Electrical Engineering, Pan African University, Kenya
  • E. Mwangi University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • K. Langat Department of Telecommunication and Information Engineering, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya
Volume: 9 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 4801-4807 | October 2019 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3097


Typically, the filter bank multicarrier with offset quadrature amplitude modulation (FBMC-OQAM) bears some impressive properties that make it popular as one of the substitutes to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for the upcoming technology of broadband wireless communication systems. Although FBMC-OQAM preserves the multicarrier modulation (MCM) features, its spectrum usually suffers from impairments when subjected to the nonlinear behavior of a power amplifier (PA) which results in spectral re-growth. Due to the spectrum limitation and low energy efficiency foreseen in the forthcoming 5G networks, it is vital to confine the spectrum of the FBMC-OQAM signal within the allocated band of interest. In this paper, the suppression of the spectral re-growth experienced on the FBMC-OQAM signal due to the nonlinear distortion effects introduced by the PA is investigated. The crest factor reduction (CFR) method in combination with an adaptive digital pre-distortion (DPD) are used. The peak windowing technique based on sequential asymmetric superposition windowing (SASW) algorithm is used in the CFR part while the least square estimation with QR-decomposition (LSE/QR) has been used as the coefficient’s estimator and adaptation algorithm in the DPD part. The performance of the two combined techniques has been evaluated on SystemVue2018 simulation platform. The adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) and the error vector magnitude (EVM) have been considered as the performance merits. The simulation results show that the proposed techniques significantly improve the spectrum, first by reducing the PAPR of the FBMC-OQAM signal by about 1.5dB. Secondly, the spectral re-growth has been reduced by about -45.74dB adjacent channel leakage suppression and the error vector magnitude measure has been obtained to be about 7.12%. (-22.95dB). These values lead to better average input power of the FBMC-OQAM signal and improvement in the spectral efficiency and they are in accordance with the 3GPP standard for wideband signals in nonlinear systems.


FBMC-OQAM, spectral re-growth, nonlinear PA, CFR, SASW, adaptive DPD, LSE with QR decomposition


Download data is not yet available.


W. Jiang, T. Kaiser, “From OFDM to FBMC: Principles and comparisons”, in: Signal Processing for 5G: Algorithms and Implementations, John Wiley & Sons, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119116493.ch3

S. Patil, S. Patil, U. Kolekar, “Implementation of 5G using OFDM and FBMC (filter bank multicarrier) /OQAM (offset quadrature amplitude modulation)”, International Journal of Innovative Science, Engineering & Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 11–15, 2018

H. Zhang, D. L. Ruyet, D. Roviras, Y. Medjahdi, H. Sun, “Spectral Efficiency Comparison of OFDM/FBMC for Uplink Cognitive Radio Networks”, EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, Vol. 2010, Article ID 621808, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2010.5502008

R. Gerzaguet, N. Bartzoudis, L. G. Baltar, V. Berg, J. B. Dore, D. Ktenas, O. F. Bach, X. Mestre, M. Payaro, M. Farber, K. Roth, “The 5G candidate waveform race: a comparison of complexity and performance”, EURASIP Journal on Advances on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1–14, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13638-016-0792-0

M. Renfors, X. Mestre, E. Kofidis, F. Bader, Orthogonal Waveforms and Filter Banks for Future Communication Systems, First Edition, Academic Press, 2017

R. Nissel, S. Schwarz, M. Rupp, “Filter bank multicarrier modulation schemes for future mobile communications”, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 35, No. 8, pp. 1768–1782, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2017.2710022

M. Azhar, A. Shabbir, “5G networks : Challenges and techniques for energy efficiency”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 2864–2868, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1623

A. Shabbir, H. R. Khan, S. A. Ali, S. Rizvi, “Design and performance analysis of multi-tier heterogeneous network through coverage, throughput and energy efficiency”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 7, No. 6, pp. 2345–2350, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1256

Y. Rahmatallah, S. Mohan, “Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems : A survey and taxonomy”, IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 1567–1592, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SURV.2013.021313.00164

J. Wood, Behavioral Modeling and Linearization of RF Power Amplifiers, First Edition, Artech House, 2014

Z. He, W. Ye, S. Feng, “Digital predistortion of power amplifiers based on compound memory”, IEICE Electronic Express, Vol. 10, No. 21, pp. 1–5, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1587/elex.10.20130687

M. V. D. Nair, R. Giofre, P. Colantonio, F. Giannini, “Sequential Asymmetric Superposition Windowing for Crest Factor Reduction and its Effects on Doherty Power Amplifier”, Integrated Nonlinear Microwave and Millimetre-wave Circuits Workshop, Taormina, Italy, October 1-2, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/INMMIC.2015.7330380

M. V. D. Nair, R. Giofre, P. Colantonio, F. Giannini, “Effects of Digital Predistortion and Crest Factor Reduction Techniques on Efficiency and Linearity Trade-off in Class AB GaN-PA”, 10th European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference, Paris, France, September 7-8, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EuMIC.2015.7345123

F. M. Ghannouchi, O. Hammi, M. Helaoui, Behavioral Modeling and Predistortion of Wideband Wireless Transmitters, First Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119004424

R. Zayani, Y. Medjahdi, H. Bouhadda, H. Shaiek, D. Roviras, R. Bouallegue, “Adaptive Predistortion Techniques for Non-Linearly Amplified FBMC-OQAM Signals”, IEEE 79th Vehicular Technology Conference, Seoul, South Korea, May 18-19, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/VTCSpring.2014.7022810

M. Sajedin, A. Ghorbani, H. R. A. Dava, “Nonlinearity compensation for high power amplifiers based on look-up table method for OFDM transmitters”, International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Information Technolog, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 354–367, 2014

W. Gao, Linearization Techniques for RF Power Amplifiers, Springer, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44222-8_5

H. D. Rodrigues, T. C. Pimenta, R. A. A. D. Souza, L. L. Mendes, “Orthogonal scalar feedback digital pre-distortion linearization”, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 319–330, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TBC.2017.2755261

V. Vasconcellos, G. C. Ornelas, A. N. Barreto, “Performance of 5G Candidate Waveforms with Non-Linear Power Amplifiers”, IEEE 9th Latin-American Conference on Communications, Guatemala City, Guatemala, November 8-10, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/LATINCOM.2017.8240191

S. S. K. C. Bulusu, H. Shaiek, D. Roviras, “PA Linearization of FBMC-OQAM Signals with Overlapped Recursive Error Correcting Predistortion”, International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems, Poznan, Poland, September 20-23, 2016

T. Jiang, D. Chen, C. Ni, D. Qu, OQAM/FBMC for Future Wireless Communications Principles Technologies and Applications, First Edition, Academic Press, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813557-0.00010-3

M. Bellanger, “FBMC physical layer: A primer”, European Project, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 1–31, 2010

A. Sahin, I. Guvenc, H. Arslan, “A survey on multicarrier communications: Prototype filters, lattice structures, and implementation aspects”, IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 1312–1338, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SURV.2013.121213.00263

H. Wang, “A Hybrid PAPR Reduction Method Based on SLM and Multi-Data Block PTS for FBMC/OQAM Systems”, Information, Vol. 9, Article ID 246, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/info9100246

L. Guan, A. Zhu, “Green communications : Digital predistortion for wideband RF power amplifier”, IEEE Microwave Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 84-99, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MMM.2014.2356037

5G Americas, Wireless Technology Eveluation Towards 5G: 3GPP Release 13 to Release 15 and Beyond, 5G Americas, 2017


How to Cite

J. Jake, E. Mwangi, and K. Langat, “Spectral Re-Growth Suppression in the FBMC-OQAM Signal Under the Non-linear Behavior of a Power Amplifier”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4801–4807, Oct. 2019.


Abstract Views: 384
PDF Downloads: 259

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)