Foreign Inclusions, Enclosed Cavities, Partial Discharge Models and Discharge Energy: A Short Review Regarding Solid Dielectrics and Composite Insulating Systems

Authors

  • M. Danikas Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
  • S. Morsalin University of New South Wales, School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, Sydney, Australia
Volume: 9 | Issue: 5 | Pages: 4659-4666 | October 2019 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2958

Abstract

Partial discharges in cavities are one of the main reasons of breakdown of insulating materials and insulating systems in general. The present paper aims at commenting some aspects of the relation between partial discharges and insulation damage. Some basic models explaining the workings and impacts of discharges in cavities are discussed. Discussions about the possibility of damage in the presence of multiple cavities as well as of the risks of minute discharges and/or charging phenomena below the so-called inception voltage are conducted. It is remarked that the question of the relationship between discharge parameters and insulation damage is still an important one, especially for composite insulating systems.

Keywords:

solid dielectrics, partial discharges, inception voltage, insulation damage, discharge magnitude, discharge energy, charging phenomena

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

N. B. Timpe, “Partial discharge measurements in distributed parameter systems: cables”, Engineering Dielectrics, Vol. I: Corona Measurements and Interpretation, ASTM Special Technical Publication, pp. 134-175, 1979

R. Bartnikas, “Corona discharge processes in voids”, Engineering Dielectrics, Vol. I: Corona Measurements andInterpretation, ASTM Special Technical Publication, pp. 22-67, 1979 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1520/STP37822S

A. Kelen, “Studies on partial discharges on solid dielectrics: A contribution to the discharge resistance testing of insulating materials”, Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, No. EI 16, pp. 138, 1967

A. Gemant, “Die Verlustkurve Lufthaeltiger Isolierstoffe”, Zeitscchrift der Technischen Physik, Vol. 13, pp. 184-189, 1932

A. Gemant, W. von Philippoff, “Die Funkenstrecke mit Vorkodensator”, Zeitscchrift der Technischen Physik, Vol. 13, pp. 425-430, 1932

F. H. Kreuger, Discharge detection in high voltage equipment, Heywood, London, United Kingdom, 1964

G. C. Crichton, P. W. Karlsson, A. Pedersen, “Partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 335-342, 1989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/14.90292

M. G. Danikas, G. E. Vardakis, “The case of Pedersen’s theory to model partial discharges in cavities enclosed in solid insulation: A criticism of some of its aspects from an electrical engineers’ and from a physicists’ point of view”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 52, No. 5-6, pp. 166-170, 2001

H. Repp, K. W. Nissen, P. Roehl, “Partial discharges in voids: inception conditions and detection limits”, Siemens Forschung und Entwicklung Bericht, Vol. 12, pp. 101-106, 1983

M. G. Danikas, I. W. McAllister, G. C. Crichton, A. Pedersen, “Discussion: partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 26, pp. 537-539, 1991 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/14.85127

Z. Achillides, M. G. Danikas, E. Kyriakides, “Partial discharge modeling and induced charge concept: Comments and criticism of Pedersen’s model and associated measured transients”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 1118-1122, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2017.006013

M. G. Danikas, “Discharge studies in solid insulation voids”, CEIDP Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, USA, October 28-31, 1990

M. G. Danikas, A. M. Bruning, “Comparison of several theoretical subcorona to corona transition relations with recent experimental results”, IEEE International Symposium on Electrical Insulation, USA, June 7-10, 1992

A. M. Bruning, M. G. Danikas, “Report on continuing work on parallel and non-parallel electric field chemical aging of polymer cavities”, 4th International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics, Italy, June 22-25, 1992

J. H. Mason, “The deterioration and breakdown of dielectrics resulting from internal discharges”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 98, Pt. I, pp. 44- 59, 1951 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-1.1951.0019

J. H. Mason, “Breakdown of insulation by discharges”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 100, Pt. IIA, pp. 149-158, 1953 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-2a.1953.0024

W. Boenig, “Luftgehalt und Luftspaltverteilung geschichteter Dielektrika”, Archiv fuer Elektrotechnik, Vol. 48, pp. 85-96, 1963 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01419337

A. Kelen, M. G. Danikas, “Evidence and presumption in PD diagnostics”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 780-795, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/94.469975

J. H. Mason, “Breakdown of solid dielectrics in divergent fields”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 102, Pt. C, pp. 254-263, 1955 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-c.1955.0030

J. H. Mason, “Discharges”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 211-238, 1978 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1978.298074

E. Friedlander, J. R. Reed, “Electrical discharges in air gaps facing solid insulation in high-voltage equipment”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 100, Pt. IIA, pp. 121-131, 1953 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-2a.1953.0020

S. I. Reynolds, “On the behavior of natural and artificial voids in insulation under internal discharge”, AIEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-77, Pt. III, pp. 1604-1608, 1959 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/AIEEPAS.1958.4500213

M. S. Naidu, V. Kamaraju, High voltage engineering, Tata McGraw- Hill, New Delhi, India, 2000

E. C. Rogers, “The self-extinction of gaseous discharges in cavities in dielectrics”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 105A, pp. 621-630, 1958 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-a.1958.0117

A. A. Hossam-Eldin, S. S. Dessouky, S. M. El_Mekkaway, R. A. Abd El-Aal, “Internal discharges in cavities in solid dielectric materials”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 4, Art. No. 13, 2009

R. J. Meats, A. W. Stannett, “Degradation of insulation materials by electrical discharges”, IEEE Transactions on Power, Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS- 83, pp. 49-54, 1964 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1964.4765923

R. Bartnikas, G. L. d’ Ombrain, “A study of corona discharge rate and energy loss in spark gaps”, IEEE Transactions on Power, Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-84, No. 9, pp. 770-778, 1965 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1965.4766256

I. Y. Megahed, B. C. Mansfield, R. E. Wootton, “Detection and measurement of discharges in cavities in solid dielectrics”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 114, No. 11, pp. 1822-1824, 1967 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/piee.1967.0347

I. Y. Megahed, “The discharge-repetition rate in cavities in epoxy resin, polyethylene, and mica under alternating voltage conditions”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 69-74, 1975 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1975.297865

T. Tanaka, Y. Ikeda, “Internal discharges in polyethylene with an artificial cavity”, IEEE Transactions on Power, Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-90, No. 4-6, pp. 2692-2702, 1971 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPAS.1971.292922

R. J. Densley, B. Salvage, “Partial discharges in gaseous cavities in solid dielectrics under impulse voltage conditions”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 54-62, 1971 Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 9, No. 5, 2019, 4659-4666 4665 www.etasr.com Danikas and Morsalin: Foreign Inclusions, Enclosed Cavities, Partial Discharge Models and … DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1971.299155

H. Okamoto, M. Kanazashi, T. Tanaka, “Deterioration of insulating materials by internal discharge”, IEEE Transactions on Power, Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-96, No. 1, pp. 166-177, 1977 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/T-PAS.1977.32320

T. Tanaka, A. Greenwood, Advanced power cable technology: basic Concepts and testing, CRC Press, USA, 1983

T. Tanaka, A. Greenwood, Advanced power cable technology: present and future, CRC Press, USA, 1983

S. J. Rigby, B. M. Weedy, “Partial discharges in liquid-nitrogen impregnated taped-cable insulation”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 123, No. 2, pp. 165-170, 1976 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/piee.1976.0033

K. Horii, A. J. Pearmain, A. J. McNerney, “Correlation of electrical breakdown of supercritical helium in short gaps with partial discharge in cable samples”, Crygenics, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 102-106, 1983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-2275(83)90123-6

P. N. Nikolopoulos, D. N. Diamantopoulos, “Behavior of pressboard-oil insulation under alternating voltages of industrial frequency in a nonuniform electric field”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 130, Pt. A, No. 3, pp. 145-151, 1983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-a-1.1983.0026

S. Selvakumar, R. S. Nema, “Low pressure discharges in narrow cylindrical voids”, 3rd IEE International Conference on Dielectrics Materials, Measurements and Applications, United Kingdom, September 10-13, 1979

A. C. Gjaerde, Multi-factor ageing of epoxy: the combined effect of temperature and partial discharges, Ph.D. Thesis, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Power Engineering, 1994

B. Stenerhag, A. Danemar, “Partial discharge characteristics of some liquid impregnated system”, 3rd IEE International Conference on Dielectrics Materials, Measurements and Applications, United Kingdom, September 10-13, 1979

J. P. Reynders, “Electrical detection of degradation caused by partial discharges in polythene”, IEE International Conference on Dielectric Materials, Measurements and Applications, United Kingdom, July 21- 25, 1975

J. P. Reynders, “Measurement of the effects of partial discharge activity on low density polyethylene”, 3rd IEE International Conference on Dielectrics Materials, Measurements and Applications, United Kingdom, September 10-13, 1979

R. R. Opoku, E. G. Robles, J. H. Mason, “Degradation and breakdown of polypropylene film by internal discharges”, IEE International Conference on Dielectric Materials, Measurements and Applications, United Kingdom, July 21-25, 1975

J. H. Mason, “Enhancing the significance of PD measurements”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 876-888, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/94.469982

K. D. Wolter, J. Tanaka, J. F. Johnson, “A study of gaseous degradation products of corona-exposed polyethylene”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 248-252, 1982 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1982.298463

J. Golinski, J. H. Calderwood, S. Zoledziowski, A. Sierota, “Partial discharges in a cylindrical void with a metal rod electrode”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp. 560-569, 1982 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1982.298533

G. Garcia, B. Fallou, “Equipment for the energy measurement of partial discharges”, 1st International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrcs, France, July 4-8, 1983 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSD.1983.7411520

F. Viale, J. Poitevin, B. Fallou, J. F. Morel, R. Buccianti, S. Yakov, S. Cesari, E. Serena, “Study of a correlation between energy of partial discharges and degradation of paper-oil insulation”, CIGRE, Report 15- 12, pp. 1-9, 1982

A. R. Nosseir, M. M. A. Salama, A. Soliman, M. Rizk, “Discharge detection and measurement in voids in solid dielectrics”, 1984 IEEE International Symposium on Electrical Insulation, Canada, June 11-13, 1984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EIC.1984.7465211

M. G. Danikas, A study of the behavior of a uniaxially orientated polyethylene tape/oil insulating system subjected to electrical and thermal stresses, Ph.D. Thesis, University of London, Queen Mary College, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 1985

A. J. Pearmain, M. G. Danikas, “A study of the behavior of a uniaxially oriented polyethylene/oil insulating system subjected to electrical and thermal stresses”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 373-382, 1987 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1987.298896

R. Liao, J. Yan, L. Yang, M. Zhu, B. Liu, “Study of the relationship between damage of oil-impregnated insulation paper and evolution of phase-resolved partial discharge patterns”, European Transactions on Electrical Power, Vol. 21, pp. 2112-2124, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/etep.546

T. Tanmaneeprasert, P. L. Lewin, “The use of partial discharge analysis for the diagnosis of electrical ageing in polymeric insulation containing cavities”, Electrical Insulation Conference, Canada, June 19-22, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EIC.2016.7548619

K. Theodosiou, D. P. Agoris, I. Gialas, I. Vitellas, “Measurements of partial discharges and power losses in PET films in high voltage AC fields”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 250-256, 2007

M. G. Danikas, “Some possible new applications of a partial discharge (PD) model and its relation to PD detection sensitivity”, European Transactions on Electrical Power, Vol. 6, No. 6, pp. 445-448, 1996 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/etep.4450060616

M. G. Danikas, G. E. Vassiliadis, “Models of partial discharges (PD) in enclosed cavities in solid dielectrics: A study of the relationship of PD magnitudes to the sensitivity of PD detectors and some further comments on insulation lifetime”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 54, No. 5-6, pp. 132-135, 2003

A. A. Hossam-Eldin, “Analysis of discharge damage and breakdown in gaseous Cavities in insulating materials”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 17, pp. 421-428, 1984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/17/2/027

E. Jahoda, J. Kudelcik, “Internal partial discharge in cavity of polyurethane”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 192, pp. 365-369, 2017 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.063

T. Tanmaneeprasert, P. L. Lewin, “Electrical treeing and ageing characteristics in cavities of low density polyethylene dielectrics on partial discharge measurements”, IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Canada, October 16-19, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CEIDP.2016.7785536

T. Tanaka, T. Okamoto, K. Nakanishi, T. Miyamoto, “Aging and related Phenomena in modern electric power systems”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 826-844, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/14.237744

J. C. Devins, “The physics of partial discharges in solid dielectrics”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 475-495, 1984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1984.298770

J. P. Habas, J. M. Arrouy, F. Perrot, “Effects of electric partial discharges on the rheological and chemical properties of polymers used in HV composite insulators after railway service”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 16, No. 5, pp. 1444-1454, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2009.5293959

M. Kannan, P. Sreejaya, “Partial discharge detection in solid dielectrics”, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research, Vol. 4, No. 8, 2013

Z. Lei, J. Song, M. Tian, X. Cui, C. Li, M. Wen, “Partial discharges in cavities in ethylene propylene rubber”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 1647-1659, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TDEI.2014.004297

I. Kolcunova, M. Sipos, “Measurement of partial discharge in discshaped voids”, 8th International Scientific Symposium on Electrical Power Engineering (Elektroenergetika 2015), Slovakia, September 16- 18, 2015

M. G. Danikas, A. Kelen, “Diagnostic PD pulse techniques: a discussion on possibilities and limitations”, Nordic Insulation Symposium, Norway, June 10-12, 1996

D. P. Agoris, N. D. Hatziargyriou, “Two voids model for simulation of partial discharges in solid dielectrics”, Modelling, Simulation & Control, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 1-14, 1992

M. G. Danikas, “Partial discharge behavior of two (or more) adjacent cavities in polyethylene samples”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 52, No. 01-02, pp. 36-39, 2001

D. P. Agoris, N. D. Hatziargyriou, “Approach to partial discharges development in closely coupled cavities embedded in solid dielectrics by the lumped capacitance model”, IEE Proceedings-A, Vol. 140, No. 2, pp. 131-134, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/ip-a-3.1993.0021

D. P. Agoris, N. D. Hatziargyriou, “A modelistic consideration of the interaction between discharges in cavities of solid dielectrics”, 8th Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research Vol. 9, No. 5, 2019, 4659-4666 4666 www.etasr.com Danikas and Morsalin: Foreign Inclusions, Enclosed Cavities, Partial Discharge Models and … International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Japan, August 23-27, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2958

D. P. Agoris, N. D. Hatziargyriou, “Application of the EMTP program in the study of discharges in two cavities enclosed in a solid dielectric during its stressing with AC or impulse voltage”, CIGRE Greek National Committee, Greece, February 10-11, 1994 (in Greek)

A. M. Bruning, D. G. Kasture, F. J. Campbell, N. H. Turner, “Effect of cavity sub-corona current on polymer insulation life”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 826-836, 1991 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/14.83709

M. G. Danikas, “On the damage of insulating materials below inception voltage”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 52, No. 11-12, pp. 367- 371, 2001

A. Harlin, M. G. Danikas, P. Hyvonen, “Polyolefin insulation degradation in electrical field below critical inception voltages”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 56, No. 5-6, pp. 135-140, 2005

Y. Zhang, M. G. Danikas, X. Zhao, Y. Cheng, “Preliminary experimental work on nanocomposite polymers: Small partial discharges at inception voltage, the existence of possible charging mechanisms below inception voltage and the problem of definitions“, Journal of Electrical Engineering, Vol. 63, No. 2, pp. 109-114, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10187-012-0016-8

Y. Zhang, M. G. Danikas, X. Zhao, Y. Cheng, “Charging phenomena below the inception voltage: Effects of nanofillers on epoxy”, Malaysian Polymer Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 68-73, 2012

Y. Shibuya, S. Zoledziowski, J. H. Calderwood, “Void formation and electrical breakdown in epoxy resin”, IEEE Transactions on Power, Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 96, pp. 196-206, 1977 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/T-PAS.1977.32324

T. Tanaka, “Internal partial discharge and material degradation”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. EI-21, No. 6, pp. 899-905, 1986 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TEI.1986.348999

R. Bartnikas, J. P. Novak, “On the character of different forms of partial discharge and their related terminologies”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 956-968, 1993 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/14.249369

C. Hudon, R. Bartnikas, M. R. Wertheimer, “Chemical and physical degradation effects on epoxy surfaces exposed to partial discharges”, 4th International Conference on Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, Australia, July 3-8, 1994

P. H. F. Morshuis, “Assessment of dielectric degradation by ultrawideband PD Detection”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insualtion, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 744-760, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/94.469971

M. G. Danikas, “Small partial discharges and their role in insulation deterioration”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 863-867, 1997 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/94.654733

J. Sletbak, “Partial discharge measurements: possibilities and limitations”, 4th International Conference on Conduction and Breakdown in Solid Dielectrics, Italy, June 22-25, 1992

M. G. Danikas, "Some new relationships and a scaling law regarding partial discharges in spherical cavities enclosed in solid insulation", Acta Electrotehnica Napocensis, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 5-9, 1998

R. E. James, B. T. Phung, “Development of computer-based measurements and their applications to PD pattern analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 838-856, 1995 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/94.469978

M. G. Danikas, N. Gao, M. Aro, “Partial discharge recognition using neural networks: A review”, Archiv fuer Elektrotechnik (Electrical Engineering), Vol. 85, pp. 87-93, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-002-0151-5

G. C. Stone, “A perspective on online partial discharge monitoring for assessment of the condition of rotating machine stator winding insulation”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 28, No. 5, pp. 8- 13, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2012.6268437

M. Wu, H. Cao, J. Cao, H. L. Nguyen, J. B. Gomes, S. P. Krishnaswamy, “An overview of state-of-the-art partial discharge analysis techniques for condition monitoring”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 22-35, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2015.7303259

D. Moraru, C. Popesco, M. Stoica, F. Tanasesco, “Detection of degradation produced by partial discharges in paper-oil insulation”, CIGRE Report, Paper 15-05, pp. 1-8, 1970

H. Gsodam, “Investigations of the energy of internal partial discharges by AC stress”, 4th International Symposium on High Voltage Engineering, Athens, Greece, September 5-9, 1983

O. Shutenko, “Faults diagnostics of high-voltage equipment based on the analysis of the dynamics of changing of the content of gases”, Energetika, Vol. 64, No. 1, pp. 11-22, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.6001/energetika.v64i1.3724

M. Duval, “A review of faults detectable by gas-in-oil analysis in transfmormers”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 8-17, 2002 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2002.1014963

M. Duval, “New techniques for dissolved gas-in-oil analysis”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 6-15, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MEI.2003.1192031

K. Sahitya Yadav, Understanding the impact of thermal ageing on dielectric properties of transformer insulation, Ph.D. Thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chennai, India, 2017

G. Mole, “Improved methods of test for the insulation of electrical equipment”, Proceedings of the IEE, Vol. 100 (IIA), pp. 276-283, 1953 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1049/pi-2a.1953.0040

Downloads

How to Cite

[1]
M. Danikas and S. Morsalin, “Foreign Inclusions, Enclosed Cavities, Partial Discharge Models and Discharge Energy: A Short Review Regarding Solid Dielectrics and Composite Insulating Systems”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4659–4666, Oct. 2019.

Metrics

Abstract Views: 467
PDF Downloads: 301

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>