Establishing a Budget for Optimal Response Strategies for Fisks Categorized into Distinct Groups by using a Mathematical Model and Genetic Algorithm


  • Hiba Omer Aljorany Civil Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq
  • Ahmed Mohammed Raoof Mahjoob Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
Volume: 14 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 14747-14753 | June 2024 |


Construction projects may be subjected to various risks which must be identified, evaluated, and a suitable response to each risk must be determined. The risk response stage is a crucial and significant phase in risk management that requires particular attention. This paper proposes an effective mathematical model for determining the most suitable strategy and action in dealing with both primary and secondary risk events in different risk categories that may arise in a construction project. It also provides a method for estimating or forecasting the anticipated budget for a risk response plan. Another contribution of this study is the development of an innovative approach that combines binary programming with the genetic algorithm. The efficacy of the proposed methodology was examined by its implementation in a real geothermal project. The results demonstrated that the proposed framework serves as a useful tool to tackle the challenges related to the selection and optimization of risk response strategies, as well as setting an appropriate budget for the risk response plan. The suggested model can help decision-makers to assess the variety of viable risk response actions and strategies and arrive at a more well-informed decision.


primary risk, secondary risk, risk responses, modeling, Genetic Algorithm, construction projects, risk management


Download data is not yet available.


M. Fan, N.-P. Lin, and C. Sheu, "Choosing a project risk-handling strategy: An analytical model," International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 112, no. 2, pp. 700–713, Apr. 2008.

H. O. Ghaeb and A. M. R. Mahjoob, "Risk Response in Construction Project: A Review Study," Journal of Engineering, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 121–137, Aug. 2023.

H. E. Hossny, A. H. Ibrahim, and A. Elnady, "Assessment of Construction Project Complexity," The Open Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 414–423, Dec. 2021.

I. Ben-David and T. Raz, "An integrated approach for risk response development in project planning," Journal of the Operational Research Society, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 14–25, Jan. 2001.

M. K. Singh, S. Deep, and R. Banerjee, "Risk management in construction projects as per Indian scenario," International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 127–136, 2017.

A. Safayet, H. Islam, and S. Ahmed, "A Case Study on Risk Management in Existing Construction Project in Bangladesh," Journal of Logistics, Informatics and Service Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2018.

R. Kasid and A. Mahjoob, "An Extensive Literature Review on Risk Assessment Models (Techniques and Methodology) for Construction Industry," Journal of Engineering, vol. 29, pp. 76–93, Aug. 2023.

P. K. Jain and S. T. Qadri, "Identification of Risk in Construction Projects," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 11, pp. 253–260, 2020.

A. Younesi, R. Rahmani, J. Jaafari, and Y. Mahdavi, "Environmental Risk Assessment and Management in Oil Platform Construction Phase Activities: A Case Study," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1658–1663, Jun. 2017.

T. Zayed, M. Amer, and J. Pan, "Assessing risk and uncertainty inherent in Chinese highway projects using AHP," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 408–419, May 2008.

E. Rasheed, "Valuation the Impact of Risks on the Goals and the Safety of Construction Projects in Iraq," Journal of Engineering, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 1–19, Dec. 2015.

Y. Nassar, "Explore and Assess the Risks of the Project Parties Involved in the Construction Projects," Journal of Global Scientific Research, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1906–1919, 2021.

A. D. Nandagavale and B. A. Konnur, "Risk Management in the Construction Project: Review," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 4003–4006, 2019.

A. Nieto-Morote and F. Ruz-Vila, "A fuzzy approach to construction project risk assessment," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 220–231, Feb. 2011.

R. Soofifard, M. Bafruei, and M. Gharib, "A Mathematical model for selecting the project risk responses in construction projects," International Journal of Optimization in Civil Engineering, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 601–624, Jan. 2018.

S. H. Fateminia, N. G. Seresht, and A. R. Fayek, "Evaluating Risk Response Strategies on Construction Projects Using a Fuzzy Rule-Based System," in 36th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Banff, AB, Canada, Dec. 2019.

J. Perry and R. Hayes, "Risk and its management in construction projects.," Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 499–521, Jun. 1985.

D. B. Hertz and H. Thomas, Risk analysis and its applications. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1983.

A. Jaafari, "Management of risks, uncertainties and opportunities on projects: time for a fundamental shift," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 89–101, Feb. 2001.

R. J. K. Jalhoom and A. M. R. Mahjoob, "An MCDM Approach for Evaluating Construction-Related Risks using a Combined Fuzzy Grey DEMATEL Method," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 13572–13577, Apr. 2024.

D. Baloi and A. D. F. Price, "Modelling global risk factors affecting construction cost performance," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 261–269, May 2003.

H. Fukuda and H. Kuwano, "The Mathematical Model of Project Risk Responses in Project Risk Management," Journal of the Operations Research Society of Japan, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 192–200, 2017.

N. H. Kadum, "The integration of Risk management and BIM to Manage the duration of construction projects," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Diyala, Diyala, Iraq, 2021.

A. M. Burhan, Risk management in construction projects. Baghdad, Iraq: University of Baghdad, 2003.

N. Ehsan, E. Mirza, M. Alam, and A. Ishaque, "Notice of Retraction: Risk management in construction industry," in 3rd International Conference on Computer Science and Information Technology, Chengdu, China, Jul. 2010, vol. 9, pp. 16–21.

H. F. Al-Ajmi and E. Makinde, "Risk Management in Construction Projects," Journal of Advanced Management Science, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 113–116, 2018.

A. A. Mahmoud Al-Mukahal, "Risk Management of Construction Projects," Engineering Management Research, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 15–27, May 2020.

E. K. Rasheed, "Development of a Blueprint Impact System of the risks on construction projects Implementation," Journal of Engineering, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 28–49, Aug. 2015.

E. Cheraghi, M. Khalilzadeh, S. Shojaei, and S. Zohrehvandi, "A mathematical Model to select the Risk Response Strategies of the Construction Projects: Case Study of Saba Tower," Procedia Computer Science, vol. 121, pp. 609–616, Jan. 2017.

H. I. Naji and R. H. Ali, "Risk Response Selection in Construction Projects," Civil Engineering Journal, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1208–1221, Jan. 2018.

A. Ghassemi and A. Darvishpour, "A novel approach for risk evaluation and risk response planning in a geothermal drilling project using DEMATEL and fuzzy ANP," Decision Science Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 225–242, 2018.

S. Shoar and A. Nazari, "An optimization framework for risk response actions selection using hybrid ACO and FTOPSIS," Scientia Iranica, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1763–1777, Jun. 2019.

W. Bransah, "Discovering Project Risk Management Practices in Construction Industry of Ghana," Dama Academic Scholarly Journal of Researchers, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1–14, 2020.

Y. Zhang and Z.-P. Fan, "An optimization method for selecting project risk response strategies," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 412–422, Apr. 2014.

S. Datta and S. K. Mukherjee, "Developing a Risk Management Matrix for Effective Project Planning—An Empirical Study," Project Management Journal, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 45–57, Jun. 2001.

R. Miller and D. Lessard, "Understanding and managing risks in large engineering projects," International Journal of Project Management, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 437–443, Nov. 2001.

J. Pipattanapiwong and T. Watanabe, "Multi-party Risk Management Process(MRMP) for A Construction Project Financed by An International Lender," in 16th Annual ARCOM Conference, Glasgow, UK, Sep. 2000, pp. 85–92.

E. Kujawski, "Selection of technical risk responses for efficient contingencies," Systems Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 194–212, 2002.

B. Kayis, G. Arndt, M. Zhou, and S. Amornsawadwatana, "A Risk Mitigation Methodology for New Product and Process Design in Concurrent Engineering Projects," CIRP Annals, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 167–170, Jan. 2007.

V. Bhosale, D. S. S. Shastri, and M. A. Khandare, "A Review of Genetic Algorithm used for optimizing scheduling of Resource Constraint construction projects," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 2869–2872, 2017.

A. H. Beg and M. Z. Islam, "Advantages and limitations of genetic algorithms for clustering records," in 11th Conference on Industrial Electronics and Applications, Hefei, China, Jun. 2016, pp. 2478–2483.

A. B. Senouci and N. N. Eldin, "Use of Genetic Algorithms in Resource Scheduling of Construction Projects," Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, vol. 130, no. 6, pp. 869–877, Dec. 2004.

S. N. Sivanandam and S. N. Deepa, Introduction to Genetic Algorithms. New York, NY, USA: Springer, 2008.

M. Kilic, G. Ulusoy, and F. S. Serifoglu, "A bi-objective genetic algorithm approach to risk mitigation in project scheduling," International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 202–216, Mar. 2008.

J. Pfeifer, K. Barker, J. E. Ramirez-Marquez, and N. Morshedlou, "Quantifying the risk of project delays with a genetic algorithm," International Journal of Production Economics, vol. 170, pp. 34–44, Dec. 2015.


How to Cite

H. O. Aljorany and A. M. R. Mahjoob, “Establishing a Budget for Optimal Response Strategies for Fisks Categorized into Distinct Groups by using a Mathematical Model and Genetic Algorithm”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 14747–14753, Jun. 2024.


Abstract Views: 130
PDF Downloads: 48

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)