Modified Equivalent Compression Stress Block for Normal-Strength Concrete Flexural Design using Energy Modeling


  • Hamdy El-Gohary Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering and Islamic Architecture, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia | Structural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Volume: 14 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 13851-13855 | June 2024 |


The equivalent stress block is recommended for use in the design of reinforced concrete sections to simplify the analysis of the composite behavior of concrete and steel reinforcement. In most current codes, a rectangular equivalent stress block is provided. The design parameters of the equivalent block were recommended many years ago. Due to the importance of the equivalent stress block concept, numerous investigations have been performed to increase its accuracy. In the current paper, an exploration of the rectangular equivalent stress block has been carried out using the energy modeling approach. Energy modeling is a new general approach for studying the behavior of concrete elements. In this method, the energy consumed (work done) can be determined by integrating the force-displacement diagram (in the current study this will be the concrete stress-strain curve in compression). Schematic and equivalent stress-strain curves for concrete in uniaxial compression provided in most current codes and relevant textbooks were considered in this research. The codes taken into account in the current study are ACI-318-19, Canadian Code CSA A23.3-04, Eurocode EC-2, and Chinese standard GB 500 10 – 2002. The energy consumed by these curves for different values of concrete strength has been compared with numerous experimental results. This comparison shows that the results of the equivalent stress block provided in most of the considered current codes are conservative. Applying the energy modeling for the considered experimental stress-strain curves a modified equivalent stress block is recommended for practical use. The results of the proposed equivalent stress block are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The ratio between the predicted total energy engaging the proposed model and the total energy calculated for the experimental results ranges between 0.95 and 1.08 with a mean value equal to unity.


concrete, stress-strain curve, energy modeling, equivalent stress block


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How to Cite

H. El-Gohary, “Modified Equivalent Compression Stress Block for Normal-Strength Concrete Flexural Design using Energy Modeling”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 13851–13855, Jun. 2024.


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