Urban Development Analysis using GIS and Remote Sensing. The Case Study of Makkah City


  • Medhat M. Helal Civil Engineering Department, Umm Al-Qura University, College of Engineering and Architecture, Saudi Arabia
  • Tarek A. Eldamaty Civil Engineering Department, Umm Al-Qura University, College of Engineering and Architecture, Saudi Arabia
Volume: 14 | Issue: 3 | Pages: 13864-13869 | June 2024 | https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.7019


Makkah Al-Mukarramah has undergone significant urban transformation in recent decades, transitioning from non-urban to urban landscapes driven by fast economic growth. This study aims to analyze the increase in population, urbanization, topography, and land use of Makkah City over the past 20 years, from 2000 to 2020. Makkah holds special significance for the Saudi government due to its religious and regional prominence, resulting in remarkable developmental strides within short timeframes. This has led to a surge in population and spatial expansion towards the city's outskirts, bringing about both quantitative and qualitative changes in the city. The growth rate in Makkah was 2.453% in 2020 and 2% in 2010, indicating a trajectory conducive to future land use/land cover planning. The population has shown remarkable growth, rising from 1,294,000 in 2000 to 1,578,722 in 2010 (22% increase) and further reaching 2,017,793 in 2020 (27.81% increase), nearly doubling over the two-decade span. The city's area expanded to 465 Km2 in 2020, compared to 388 Km2 in 2010 and 366 Km2 in 2000, attributed to a notable increase in the number of districts from 60 in 2010 to 101 in 2020, marking a substantial 68.3% rise. This study used a map scale of 1:300,000 to classify features, such as mountains, urban areas, deserts, and roads. The results indicate a decrease in mountains and deserts, while urban areas and roads have increased, aligning with the population growth observed over the two decades.


satellite imagery, urban analysis, land use classification, GIS


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How to Cite

M. M. Helal and T. A. Eldamaty, “Urban Development Analysis using GIS and Remote Sensing. The Case Study of Makkah City”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 13864–13869, Jun. 2024.


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