Torque Ripple Minimization and Performance Investigation of an In-Wheel Permanent Magnet Motor


  • A. Mansouri CES Laboratory, Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia
  • T. Hafedh CES Laboratory, Engineering School of Sfax, Tunisia


Recently, electric vehicle motoring has become a topic of interest, due to the several problems caused by thermal engines such as pollution and high oil prices. Thus, electric motors are increasingly applied in vehicle’ applications and relevant research about these motors and their applications has been performed. Of particular interest are the improvements regarding torque production capability, the minimization of torque ripple and iron losses. The present work deals with the optimum design and the performance investigation of an outer rotor permanent magnet motor for in-wheel electric vehicle application. At first, and in order to find the optimum motor design, a new based particle-swarm multi-objective optimization procedure is applied. Three objective functions are used: efficiency maximization, weight and ripple torque minimization. Secondly, the effects of the permanent magnets segmentation, the stator slots opening, and the separation of adjacent magnets by air are outlined. The aim of the paper is the design of a topology with smooth output torque, low ripple torque, low iron losses and mechanical robustness.


permanent magnet motor, optimization, performance, magnets design, ripple torque


Download data is not yet available.


Z. Q. Zhu, D. Howe, “Electrical machines and drives for electric, hybrid and fuel cell vehicles”, Proc. fn the IEEE, Vol. 95, No. 4, pp. 746–765, 2007 DOI:

J. Wang, K. Atallah, Z. Q. Zhu, D. Howe, “Modular 3-phase permanent magnet brushless machines for in-wheel applications”, IEEE T. Veh. Technol., Vol. 57, No. 5, pp. 2714-2720, 2008 DOI:

Y. Chen, P. Pillay, A. Khan, “PM wind generator topologies”, IEEE T. Ind. Appl., Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 619-1626, 2005 DOI:

X. Sun, C. Ming, W. Hua, L. Xu, “Optimal design of double layer permanent magnet dual mechanical port machine for wind power application”, IEEE T. Magn., Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 4613–4616, 2009 DOI:

F. Libert, Design, Optimization and Comparison of Permanent Magnet Motors for a Low-Speed Direct-Driven Mixer, Ph.D. Thesis, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden, 2004

L. Brooke, Protean electric tackles the unsprung-mass ’myth’ of in-wheel motors, 2011 SAE World Congress, USA, 2011

H. Weh, “Ten years of research in the field of high force densitys-transverse flux machines”, In Proc. speedam’96, Capri, 1996

A. J. Nebro, J. J. Durillo, J. Garcia-Nieto, C. A. Coello Coello, F. Luna, E. Alba, “SMPSO: A New PSO-based Metaheuristic for Multi-objective Optimization”, IEEE 2009 Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Multi-criteria Decision-Making, Nashville, TN, USA, 30 March-02 April 2009 DOI:

R. Ilka, A. R. Tilaki, H. A. Alamdari, R. Baghipour, “Design Optimization of Permanent Magnet-Brushless DC Motor using Elitist Genetic Algorithm with Minimum loss and Maximum Power Density”, Int. J. Mecha. Elecr. Comput. Technol., Vol. 4, No. 10, pp. 1169-1185 2014

Y. Ahn, J. Park, C. G. Lee, J. W. Kim, S. Y. Jung, “Novel Memetic Algorithm implemented With GA (Genetic Algorithm) and MADS (Mesh Adaptive Direct Search) for Optimal Design of Electromagnetic System”, IEEE T. Magn., Vol. 46, No. 6, pp. 1982–1985, 2010 DOI:

V. P. Sakthivel, R. Bhuvaneswari, S. Subramanian, “Multi-objective parameter estimation of induction motor using particle swarm optimization”, Eng. Appl. Artif. Intel., Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 302–312, 2010 DOI:

M. Ashabani, Y. A. R. I. Mohamed, “Multi-objective Shape Optimization of Segmented Pole Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines with Improved Torque Characteristics”, IEEE T. Magn., Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 795-804, 2011 DOI:

A. Mansouri, N. Smairi, H. Trabelsi, “Multi-objective Optimization of an In-Wheel Electric Vehicle Motor”, Int. J. App. Elect. Mech., Vol. 50, No. 3, pp. 449-465, 2016 DOI:

A. Mansouri, N. Smairi, H. Trabelsi, “A new multi-objective optimization procedure based on particle swarm algorithm for optimum design of in-wheel permanent magnet motor”, Tur. J. Elec. Eng. Comp. Sci. (submitted)

S. Huang, M. Aydin, T. Lipo, “Comparison of (non-slotted and slotted) surface mounted PM motors and axial flux motors for submarine ship drives,” in Proc. of 3rd Naval Symposium on Electrical Machines, USA, Dec. 4-7, 2000


How to Cite

A. Mansouri and T. Hafedh, “Torque Ripple Minimization and Performance Investigation of an In-Wheel Permanent Magnet Motor”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 987–992, Jun. 2016.


Abstract Views: 529
PDF Downloads: 361

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share