Some Mineralogical Characteristics of the Egyptian Black Sand Beach Ilmenite Part I: Homogeneous Ilmenite and Titanhematite-Ferriilmenite Grains
Received: 30 August 2022 | Revised: 15 September 2022 | Accepted: 17 September 2022 | Online: 15 December 2022
Corresponding author: M. I. Moustafa
The high-grade Egyptian beach ilmenite concentrate contains various mineral textures in addition to the main homogeneous ilmenite grains (63%), which may contain solid solutions of geikielite (MgTiO3) and pyrophanite (MnTiO3) mineral components. Few homogeneous ferrilmenite grains (2%) associated with the concentrated ilmenite grains are detected. The contents of Fe2O3, MgO, Al2O3, and Cr2O3 in the ferrilmenite grains range between 7.3% and 22.8%, 3.4% and 6.6%, 0.2% and 0.7%, and 0% and 1.2% respectively. The detected hematite-ilmenite exsolved intergrowths (21.4%) have titanhematite exsolutions of different shapes, sizes, and orientations. They occupy 5%-40% of the whole intergrowth and may show one or two distinct generations. In some ferrilmenite components, MnO ranges between 1.5% and 8.6%. The Cr2O3 and Al2O3 contents range between 0% and 1.2% and 0% and 3.2% respectively. They are mostly between 0% and 0.1% for either of the ferrilmenite components, while relatively greater content is present in the titanhematite components. In some grains, the titanhematite exsolution bodies are replaced by goethite or hydrated iron oxides. In others, the ferrilmenite intergrowth may be partially or completely altered into leucoxene. Some minor composite grains are detected in the concentrate, where each grain consists of two parts, one part is titanhematite-ferrimenite and the other is ferrilmenite-titanhematite. The titanhematite exsolved components have relatively lower TiO2 content (5.8%-23.8%). Both MgO and MnO are positively correlated with FeO rather than Fe2O3. The presence of sphenes in the obtained ilmenite concentrate may be responsible for the recorded amounts of SiO2 (30.1%-30.8%) and CaO (28.1% and 28.8%). The Cr2O3 content is relatively much higher in sphene spots than in ilmenite spots, ensuring that Cr2O3 neither follows TiO2 nor FeO. The nature of the problem of the relatively lower Ti content and the relatively higher Fe and Cr contents of the obtained ilmenite concentrates is the target of the article. The problem is related to the mineralogy of ilmenite or to the used physical concentration flowsheet of the separated concentrate and the ability to improve the ilmenite concentrate’s specifications. It is concluded that although the homogeneous ilmenite is characterized by low Cr2O3 content, some of the other exsolved texture components, e.g. titanhematite and sphenes, have relatively higher Cr2O3, in addition to Fe2O3, SiO2, or CaO. They can negatively affect the marketable specifications of the separated Egyptian black sand ilmenite concentrate.
Keywords:geikielite, pyrophanite, ferriilmenite, titanhematite, Egypt, beach ilmenite
E. M. El Shazly, "Classification of Egyptian Mineral Deposits," Egyptian Journal of Geology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1–20, 1957.
M. I. Moustafa, "Mineralogy and beneficiation of some economic minerals in the Egyptian black sands," Ph.D. dissertation, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt, 1999.
M. I. Moustafa, "Separation of economic minerals and discovery of zinc, lead and mercury minerals in the Egyptian black sands," in The Third International Conference of the Geology of Africa, Assiut, Egypt, 2003, pp. 153–171.
M. I. Moustafa, "Separation of economic minerals and discovery of zinc, lead and mercury minerals in the Egyptian black sands," in The Fifth International Conference of the Geology of Africa, Assiut, Egypt, 2007, pp. 63–78.
A. A. Mahessar et al., "Sediment Transport Dynamics in the Upper Nara Canal Off-taking from Sukkur Barrage of Indus River," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 6563–6569, Dec. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3924
N. P.H. Padmanabhan, T. Sreenivas, and N. K. Rao, "Processing of Ores of Titanium, Zirconium, Hafnium, Niobium, Tantalum, Molybdenum, Rhenium, and Tungsten: International Trends and the Indian Scene," High Temperature Materials and Processes, vol. 9, no. 2–4, pp. 217–248, Jul. 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/HTMP.1990.9.2-4.217
R. X. Sinha, Industrial minerals. Oxford, UK: Metal Bulletin Books, 1982.
E. E. El-Hinnawi, "Mineralogical and geochemical studies on Egyptian (U.A.R.) black sands," Beitrage zur Mineralogie und Petrographie, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 519–532, Nov. 1964. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01104489
N. Z. Boctor, "Mineralogical study of the opaque minerals in Rosetta-Damietta black sands," M.S. thesis, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 1966.
N. M. Hammoud, "Concentration of monazite from Egyptian black sands, employing industrial techniques," M.S. thesis, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt, 1966.
N. M. S. Hammoud, "A process for recovery of low chromium high grade ilmenite from north Egyptian beach deposits," in Proceedings, 11th Indust. Mineral Process Conference, Sardegna, Italy, 1975.
M. A. Mikhail, "Distribution and sedimentation of ilmenite in black sands, west of Rosetta," M.S. thesis, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt, 1971.
A. A. Dewedar, "Comparative studies on the heavy minerals in some black sands deposits from Sinai and east Rosetta with contribution to the mineralogy and economics of their garnets," Ph.D. dissertation, El Menoufia University, Shebin El Koum, Egypt, 1997.
A. A. El-Kammar, A. A. Ragab, and M. I. Moustafa, "Geochemistry of economic heavy minerals from Rosetta black sand of Egypt," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Earth Sciences, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 69–97, 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4197/ear.22-2.4
A.-A. M. Abdel-Karim, S. M. Zaid, M. I. Moustafa, and M. G. Barakat, "Mineralogy, chemistry and radioactivity of the heavy minerals in the black sands, along the northern coast of Egypt," Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 123, pp. 10–20, Nov. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.07.005
A.-A. M. Abdel-Karim, M. I. Moustafa, A. H. El-Afandy, and M. G. Barakat, "Mineralogy, Chemical Characteristics and Upgrading of Beach Ilmenite of the Top Meter of Black Sand Deposits of the Kafr Al-Sheikh Governorate, Northern Egypt," Acta Geologica Sinica - English Edition, vol. 91, no. 4, pp. 1326–1338, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1755-6724.13364
M. A. M. Mahmoud, "The Environmental and Radiological Impacts in Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Mine, South Eastern Desert, Egypt," International Journal of Mining Science, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 10–19, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20431/2454-9460.0701002
A. M. Ramadan, M. Farghaly, W. M. Fathy, and M. M. Ahmed, "Leaching and kinetics studies on processing of Abu-Ghalaga ilmenite ore," International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 46–53, 2016.
H. Awad et al., "Mineralogy and Radioactivity Level of the New Occurrence of Ilmenite Bearing Gabbro at Abu Murrat, Northeastern Desert, Egypt," Romanian Journal of Physics, vol. 67, Mar. 2022, Art. no. 803.
M. I. Moustafa, M. A. Tashkandi, and A. M. El-Sherif, "Detecting Mineral Resources and Suggesting a Physical Concentration Flowsheet for Economic Minerals at the Northern Border Region of Saudi Arabia," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 8617–8627, Jun. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4894
G. T. R. Droop, "A general equation for estimating Fe3+ concentrations in ferromagnesian silicates and oxides from microprobe analyses, using stoichiometric criteria," Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 51, no. 361, pp. 431–435, Sep. 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1987.051.361.10
W. Uytenbogaardt and E. A. J. Burke, Tables for Microscopic Identification of Ore Minerals. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 1971.
V. P. Ramadohr, "Die beziehungen von Fe-Ti-erzen aus magmatischen gesteinen," Bulletin De La Commission Geologique De Finlande, no. 173, pp. 1–18, 1956.
J. R. Balsley and A. F. Buddington, "Iron-titanium oxide minerals, rocks, and aeromagnetic anomalies of the Adirondack area, New York," Economic Geology, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 777–805, Nov. 1958. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/gsecongeo.53.7.777
D. I. Groves, S. E. Ho, N. M. S. Rock, M. E. Barley, and M. T. Muggeridge, "Archean cratons, diamond and platinum: Evidence for coupled long-lived crust-mantle systems," Geology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 801–805, Sep. 1987. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<801:ACDAPE>2.0.CO;2
S. J. Barnes and V. Y. Kunilov, "Spinels and Mg Ilmenites from the Noril’sk 1 and Talnakh Intrusions and Other Mafic Rocks of the Siberian Flood Basalt Province," Economic Geology, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 1701–1717, Dec. 2000. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2113/95.8.1701
M. I. Pownceby, "Alteration and associated impurity element enrichment in detrital ilmenites from the Murray Basin, southeast Australia: a product of multistage alteration," Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 243–258, Mar. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/08120090903521705
G. Pe-Piper, D. J. W. Piper, and L. Dolansky, "Alteration of Ilmenite in the Cretaceous Sandstones of Nova Scotia, Southeastern Canada," Clays and Clay Minerals, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 490–510, Oct. 2005. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1346/CCMN.2005.0530506
D. P. Svisero and N. Z. Boctor, "Iron-titanium oxide and sulfide minerals in carbonatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil," Annual report of the director of the geophysical laboratory, vol. 77, pp. 876–880, 1978.
R. H. Mitchell, "Manganoan magnesian ilmenite and titanian clinohumite from the Jacupiranga carbonatite, Sao Paulo, Brazil," American Mineralogist, vol. 63, no. 5–6, pp. 544–547, Jun. 1978.
D. S. Rao and D. Sengupta, "Electron Microscopic Studies of Ilmenite from the Chhatrapur Coast, Odisha, India, and Their Implications in Processing," Journal of Geochemistry, vol. 2014, Jul. 2014, Art. no. e192639. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/192639
J. C. Gaspar and P. J. Wyllie, "Ilmenite (high Mg,Mn,Nb) in the carbonatites from the Jacupiranga Complex, Brazil," American Mineralogist, vol. 68, no. 9–10, pp. 960–971, Oct. 1983.
E. M. Khairy, M. K. Hussien, F. M. Nakhla, and S. S. Tawil, "Analysis and composition of Egyptian ilmenite ores from Abu Ghalaga and Rosetta,"Journal of Geology, United Arab Republic, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 1964.
E. Z. Basta and M. A. Takla, "Mineralogy and Origin of Abu Ghalaga Ilmenite Occurrence, Eastern Desert," Journal of Geology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 87–124, 1968.
M. E. Hilmy, M. L. Kabesh, G. S. Saleeb-Roufaiel, and A. M. Bishady, "Investigations on some mineral deposits in Um Rus area, Eastern Desert," Journal of Geology, United Arab Republic, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 127-134, 1968.
E. Z. Basta, "New Data on the System Fe2O3- FeTiO3-TiO2 (Ferri-Ilmenite and Titanom-agetite," Proceeding Egyptian Academic Science, vol. 14, pp. 1–15, 1959.
E. F. Stumpfl, "Contribution to the study of ore minerals in some igneous rocks from Assynt," Mineralogical magazine and journal of the Mineralogical Society, vol. 32, no. 253, pp. 767–777, Jun. 1961. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1961.032.253.03
A. B. Edwards, Textures of the ore minerals and their significance. Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 1947.
P. Ramdohr, The Ore Minerals and Their Intergrowths. Oxford, England: Pergamon Press, 1980.
N. K. Rao and G. V. U. Rao, "Intergrowths in ilmenite of the beach sands of Kerala," Mineralogical magazine and journal of the Mineralogical Society, vol. 35, no. 269, pp. 118–130, Mar. 1965. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1180/minmag.1965.035.269.14
N. S. Hammoud, "Electrical separation in upgrading Egyptian beach zircon and rutile concentrates," in XIIth International Mineral Processing Congress, Sao Paolo, Brazil, 1977, pp. 100–124.
E. M. Kara, M. Meghachou, and N. Aboubekr, "Contribution of Particles Size Ranges to Sand Friction," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 497–501, Aug. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.361
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 504
PDF Downloads: 455
Copyright (c) 2022 M. I. Moustafa
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.