Design and Implementation of a Long Range Wireless Data Acquisition System for Photovoltaic Installation based on LoRa Technology
Received: 20 February 2022 | Revised: 9 March 2022 | Accepted: 12 March 2022 | Online: 9 April 2022
Corresponding author: L. Boulemzaoud
In this paper, a low power consumption long range wireless data acquisition system for PV installations, consisting of a set of sensors connected wirelessly with one or several monitoring/control systems was designed and implemented. The wireless communication between devices is based on LoRa technology. LoRa is a spread spectrum modulation technique derived from Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) technology. It offers a long-range low power wireless platform, suitable for professional wireless sensor network applications. The integration of this technology in PV installations provides an extensive, low cost, power-efficient, and easy to maintain, system. Design, high-layer communication protocol, and hardware implementation of sensors are discussed. The sensor set consists of a voltage/current sensor, a sun irradiance sensor, a panel position sensor based on an accelerometer/magnetometer for sun tracking installations, a temperature and humidity sensor, and a mobile monitoring system.
Keywords:Photovoltaic system, Data acquisition, LoRa Sensor, Wireless sensor network, accelerometer, magnetometer, irradiance
J. M. Paredes-Parra, A. J. Garcia-Sanchez, A. Mateo-Aroca, and A. Molina-Garcia, "An Alternative Internet-of-Things Solution Based on LoRa for PV Power Plants: Data Monitoring and Management," Energies, vol. 12, no. 5, Jan. 2019, Art. no. 881. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/en12050881
U. Raza, P. Kulkarni, and M. Sooriyabandara, "Low Power Wide Area Networks: An Overview," IEEE Communications Surveys Tutorials, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 855–873, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2017.2652320
F. Adelantado, X. Vilajosana, P. Tuset-Peiro, B. Martinez, J. Melia-Segui, and T. Watteyne, "Understanding the Limits of LoRaWAN," IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 34–40, Sep. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MCOM.2017.1600613
H. E. Amara, S. Latreche, M. A. Sid, and M. Khemliche, "Sliding Mode Observer and Event Triggering Mechanism Co-design," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 5487–5491, Apr. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3285
S. P. Singh and S. C. Sharma, "A Novel Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1775–1780, Aug. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1277
A. Visvizi, M. Lytras, X. Zhang, and J. Zhao, Foreign Business in China and Opportunities for Technological Innovation and Sustainable Economics. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global, 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-8980-8
T. Bouguera, J.-F. Diouris, J.-J. Chaillout, R. Jaouadi, and G. Andrieux, "Energy Consumption Model for Sensor Nodes Based on LoRa and LoRaWAN," Sensors, vol. 18, no. 7, Jul. 2018, Art. no. 2104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s18072104
AN1200.22 LoRa Modulation Basics. Camarillo, CA, USA: Semtech, 2015.
Access line ultra-low-power 32-bit MCU Arm®-based Cortex®-M0+, up to 32KB Flash, 8KB SRAM, 1KB EEPROM, ADC. ST, 2018.
E32-433T20DC User manual. Chengdu Ebyte Electronic Technology Co, 2019.
S. Latreche, A. E. Badoud, and M. Khemliche, "Implementation of MPPT Algorithm and Supervision of Shading on Photovoltaic Module," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3541–3544, Dec. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2354
INA219 Zerø-Drift, Bidirectional Current/Power Monitor With I2C Interface. Dallas, TX, USA: Texas Instruments, 2019.
A. S. Nouman, A. Chokhachian, D. Santucci, and T. Auer, "Prototyping of Environmental Kit for Georeferenced Transient Outdoor Comfort Assessment," ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, vol. 8, no. 2, Feb. 2019, Art. no. 76. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8020076
C. Bouras, A. Gkamas, and S. A. K. Salgado, "Energy efficient mechanism for LoRa networks," Internet of Things, vol. 13, Mar. 2021, Art. no. 100360. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iot.2021.100360
S.-Y. Wang, J.-E. Chang, H. Fan, and Y.-H. Sun, "Comparing the Performance of NB-IoT, LTE Cat-M1, Sigfox, and LoRa for IoT End Devices Moving at High Speeds in the Air," Journal of Signal Processing Systems, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 81–99, Jan. 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11265-021-01660-4
M. C. Bueso, J. M. Paredes-Parra, A. Mateo-Aroca, and A. Molina-Garcia, "Sensitive Parameter Analysis for Solar Irradiance Short-Term Forecasting: Application to LoRa-Based Monitoring Technology," Sensors, vol. 22, no. 4, Jan. 2022, Art. no. 1499. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/s22041499
M. Xhonneux, J. Louveaux, and D. Bol, "Implementing a LoRa Software-Defined Radio on a General-Purpose ULP Microcontroller," in IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems, Coimbra, Portugal, Oct. 2021, pp. 105–110. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SiPS52927.2021.00027
M. H. M. Ghazali, K. Teoh, and W. Rahiman, "A Systematic Review of Real-Time Deployments of UAV-Based LoRa Communication Network," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 124817–124830, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3110872
U. Alset, H. Mehta, and A. Kulkarni, "Evaluation of Antenna Dependent Wireless Communication Based on LoRa For Clear Line of Sight (CLOS) And Non-Clear Line of Sight (NC-CLOS) Applications," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1964, no. 3, Apr. 2021, Art. no. 032001. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1964/3/032001
O. Elijah et al., "Effect of Weather Condition on LoRa IoT Communication Technology in a Tropical Region: Malaysia," IEEE Access, vol. 9, pp. 72835–72843, 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3080317
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 748
PDF Downloads: 518
Copyright (c) 2022 L. Boulemzaoud, S. Latreche, M. Khemliche
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.