Porous Silicon Antireflective Coatings for Silicon Solar Cells


  • Α. Μ. Mouafki Department of Matter Sciences, Faculty of Exact Sciences and Sciences of Nature and Life, University Larbi Ben M’hidi, Algeria
  • F. Bouaïcha Laboratory of the Active Components and Materials, Institute of Science and Applied Techniques, University Larbi Ben M’hidi, Algeria
  • A. Hedibi Materials Science and Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Djelfa, Algeria
  • A. Gueddim Materials Science and Informatics Laboratory, Faculty of Science, University of Djelfa, Algeria https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4638-7269


This study presents a numerical investigation of the reflectivity of a Single Anti-Reflective Layer (SARL) and a stack of antireflective layers made of porous silicon. The stack consists of a certain number of periods, and each period contains two layers with different porosity. The simulations were conducted using the well-known Stratified Medium Theory (SMT) framework and the effect of porosity was studied. The optimal value was determined at 60% for the SARL and 65/55% for the stack of 12 periods and 6 layers. The angle of incidence was found to have more influence on the stack reflection than on the SARL reflection. The results of this investigation show that porous silicon can be used as an effective anti-reflective coating for silicon solar cells.


Prous silicon, Silicon, Solar cell, Reflectivity


Download data is not yet available.


M. Orgeret, Les piles solaires: le composant et ses applications. Paris: Masson, 1985.

"SolarPower Europe – Leading the Energy Transition." https://www.solarpowereurope.org/ (accessed Feb. 23, 2022).

"CORDIS | European Commission." https://cordis.europa.eu/ (accessed Feb. 23, 2022).

A. Bouarissa, A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, and H. Maghraoui-Meherezi, "Modeling of ZnO/MoS2/CZTS photovoltaic solar cell through window, buffer and absorber layers optimization," Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 263, Jan. 2021, Art. no. 114816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2020.114816

A. Hedibi, A. Gueddim, and B. Bentria, "Numerical Modeling and Optimization of ZnO:Al/iZnO/ZnMgO/CZTS Photovoltaic Solar Cell," Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 666–672, Jul. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-020-00278-w

A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, A. Naas, F. Daoudi, and N. Messikine, "Characteristics and optimization of ZnO/CdS/CZTS photovoltaicsolar cell," Applied Physics A, vol. 124, no. 2, Oct. 2018, Art. no. 199. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00339-018-1626-1

J. A. Dobrowolski, D. Poitras, P. Ma, H. Vakil, and M. Acree, "Toward perfect antireflection coatings: numerical investigation," Applied Optics, vol. 41, no. 16, pp. 3075–3083, Jun. 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.41.003075

D. Poitras and J. A. Dobrowolski, "Toward perfect antireflection coatings. 2. Theory," Applied Optics, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1286–1295, Feb. 2004. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/AO.43.001286

E. B. Grann, M. G. Moharam, and D. A. Pommet, "Optimal design for antireflective tapered two-dimensional subwavelength grating structures," JOSA A, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 333–339, Feb. 1995. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.12.000333

K. L. Chopra, D. K. Pandya, and L. K. Malhotra, "Solar Selective Coatings," presented at the Third Workshop on Thin Films Physics and Technology, New Delhi, India, Mar. 1999, pp. 231–326.

P. Gupta, V. L. Colvin, and S. M. George, "Hydrogen desorption kinetics from monohydride and dihydride species on silicon surfaces," Physical Review B, vol. 37, no. 14, pp. 8234–8243, Feb. 1988. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevB.37.8234

P. Gupta, A. C. Dillon, A. S. Bracker, and S. M. George, "FTIR studies of H2O and D2O decomposition on porous silicon surfaces," Surface Science, vol. 245, no. 3, pp. 360–372, Dec. 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0039-6028(91)90038-T

A. C. Dillon, P. Gupta, M. B. Robinson, A. S. Bracker, and S. M. George, "FTIR studies of water and ammonia decomposition on silicon surfaces," Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, vol. 54–55, pp. 1085–1095, Jan. 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0368-2048(90)80298-O

A. C. Dillon, M. B. Robinson, M. Y. Han, and S. M. George, "Diethylsilane Decomposition on Silicon Surfaces Studied Using Transmission FTIR Spectroscopy," Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 537-543, Feb. 1992. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2069252

R. C. Anderson, R. S. Muller, and C. W. Tobias, "Investigation of porous silicon for vapor sensing," Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Berkeley Sensor and Actuator Center, CA (USA), UCRL-21267, Oct. 1989.

L. T. Canham, "Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 1046–1048, Jun. 1990. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.103561

V. Lehmann and U. Gösele, "Porous silicon formation: A quantum wire effect," Applied Physics Letters, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 856–858, Oct. 1991. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.104512

L. Brus, "Size dependent development of band-structure in semiconductor crystallites," New Journal of Chemistry, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 123–127.

M. J. Sailor, "Sensor applications of porous silicon," in Properties of Porous Silicon, London, UK: INSPEC - The Institution of Electrical Engineers, 1997, pp. 364–370.

P. Nubile, "Analytical design of antireflection coatings for silicon photovoltaic devices," Thin Solid Films, vol. 342, no. 1, pp. 257–261, Nov. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-6090(98)01446-1

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light, 7th ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139644181

N. Fakroun, A. Gueddim, D. Guibadj, and N. Bouarissa, "Numerical Study of Zn0.66Mg0.34Se/Zn0.74Cd0.26Se Bragg Reflector: Normal and Oblique Incidence," Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 537–541, Sep. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s42341-019-00146-2

H. Lee, E. Lee, and S. Lee, "Investigation of nano-porous silicon antireflection coatings for crystalline silicon solar cells," in 2006 IEEE Nanotechnology Materials and Devices Conference, Gyeongju, South Korea, Oct. 2006, vol. 1, pp. 340–341.

D. Rahou, H. Bekhouche, E. A. Ghezal, A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, and H. Ziani, "Electronic and optical properties of InSb quantum dots from pseudopotential calculation," Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 66, pp. 206–213, May 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2020.05.001

H. Bekhouche, A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, and N. Messikine, "Phonon and Polaron properties in InSb spherical quantum dots," Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 65, pp. 146–152, Mar. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2020.02.017

H. Bekhouche, D. Rahou, A. Gueddim, M. K. Abdelhafidi, and N. Bouarissa, "Electron states, effective masses and transverse effective charge of InAs quantum dots," Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 50, no. 8, Apr. 2018, Art. no. 309. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11082-018-1576-z

A. Gueddim, T. Eloud, N. Messikine, and N. Bouarissa, "Energy levels and optical properties of GaN spherical quantum dots," Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 77, pp. 124–133, Jan. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spmi.2014.11.003

T. Eloud, A. Gueddim, and N. Bouarissa, "Optoelectronic Properties of Nanosized GaAs," Journal of New Technology and Materials, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12816/0010314

R. Abbassi, A. Boudjemline, A. Abbassi, A. Torchani, H. Gasmi, and T. Guesmi, "A Numerical-Analytical Hybrid Approach for the Identification of SDM Solar Cell Unknown Parameters," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 2907–2913, Jun. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2027

S. Saad, "Enhancement of Solar Cell Modeling with MPPT Command Practice with an Electronic Edge Filter," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 7501–7507, Aug. 2021. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4304

V. V. Prabhakaran and A. Singh, "Enhancing Power Quality in PV-SOFC Microgrids Using Improved Particle Swarm Optimization," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 4616–4622, Oct. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2963

A. Bellouche, A. Gueddim, S. Zerroug, and N. Bouarissa, "Elastic properties and optical spectra of ZnS1−xOx dilute semiconductor alloys," Optik, vol. 127, no. 23, pp. 11374–11378, Dec. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2016.09.034

A. Gueddim, S. Zerroug, N. Bouarissa, and N. Fakroun, "Study of the elastic properties and wave velocities of rocksalt Mg1−xFexO: ab initio calculations," Chinese Journal of Physics, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 1423–1431, May 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cjph.2017.04.009

A. Bouarissa, A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, and H. Maghraoui-Meherzi, "Optical response and magnetic moment of MoS2 material," Optik, vol. 208, Dec. 2020, Art. no. 164080. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2019.164080

H. Ziani and A. Gueddim, "Structural, Elastic and Electronic Properties of Transition Metal Hydrides TiH2 and ZrH2 from First Principles Calculations," in 2020 6th International Symposium on New and Renewable Energy (SIENR), Ghadaia, Algeria, Jul. 2021, pp. 1–4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SIENR50924.2021.9631902

A. Gueddim, R. Zerdoum, and N. Bouarissa, "Dependence of electronic properties on nitrogen concentration in GaAs1−xNx dilute alloys," Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 1618–1622, May 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpcs.2006.02.007

A. Gueddim, R. Zerdoum, and N. Bouarissa, "Effect of nitrogen concentration on mechanical properties of GaAs1−xNx dilute alloys," Materials Science and Engineering: B, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 111–115, Apr. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2006.03.032

A. Gueddim, R. Zerdoum, and N. Bouarissa, "Alloy composition and optoelectronic properties of dilute GaSb1−xNx by pseudo-potential calculations," Physica B: Condensed Matter, vol. 389, no. 2, pp. 335–342, Oct. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physb.2006.07.008

A. Gueddim and N. Bouarissa, "Electronic structure and optical properties of dilute InAs1-xNx: pseudopotential calculations," Physica Scripta, vol. 80, no. 1, Mar. 2009, Art. no. 015701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0031-8949/80/01/015701

M. Ajmal Khan, A. Gueddim, N. Bouarissa, H. Algarni, and H. Ziani, "Band parameters for Zn1−xMoxTe studied by means of spin-polarized first-principles calculations," Journal of Computational Electronics, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 38–46, Nov. 2020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10825-019-01430-3

A. Gueddim, M. E. Madjet, S. Zerroug, and N. Bouarissa, "First-principles investigations of electronic properties and optical spectra of Cd1−xMnxTe dilute magnetic semiconductors," Optical and Quantum Electronics, vol. 48, no. 12, Aug. 2016, Art. no. 551. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11082-016-0818-1

N. Bouarissa, A. Gueddim, S. A. Siddiqui, M. Boucenna, and A. Al-Hajry, "First-principles study of dielectric properties and optical conductivity of Cd1−xMnxTe," Superlattices and Microstructures, vol. 72, pp. 319–324, May 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spmi.2014.05.010

S. Zerroug, A. Gueddim, and N. Bouarissa, "Composition dependence of fundamental properties of Cd1-xCoxTe magnetic semiconductor alloys," Journal of Computational Electronics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 473–478, Mar. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10825-016-0802-9


How to Cite

Mouafki Α. Μ., F. Bouaïcha, A. Hedibi, and A. Gueddim, “Porous Silicon Antireflective Coatings for Silicon Solar Cells”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 8354–8358, Apr. 2022.


Abstract Views: 531
PDF Downloads: 426

Metrics Information

Most read articles by the same author(s)