A Semi-Empirical Equation based on the Strut-and-Tie Model for the Shear Strength Prediction of Deep Beams with Multiple Large Web Openings


  • L. T. Hussein Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq
  • R. M. Abbas Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Baghdad, Iraq


The behavior and shear strength of full-scale (T-section) reinforced concrete deep beams, designed according to the strut-and-tie approach of ACI Code-19 specifications, with various large web openings were investigated in this paper. A total of 7 deep beam specimens with identical shear span-to-depth ratios have been tested under mid-span concentrated load applied monotonically until beam failure. The main variables studied were the effects of width and depth of the web openings on deep beam performance. Experimental data results were calibrated with the strut-and-tie approach, adopted by ACI 318-19 code for the design of deep beams. The provided strut-and-tie design model in ACI 318-19 code provision was assessed and found to be unsatisfactory for deep beams with large web openings. A simplified empirical equation to estimate the shear strength for deep T-beams with large web openings based on the strut-and-tie model was proposed and verified with numerical analysis. The numerical study considered three-dimensional finite element models, in ABAQUS software, that have been developed to simulate and predict the performance of deep beams. The results of numerical simulations were in good agreement and exhibited close correlation with the experimental data. The test results showed that the enlargement in the size of web openings substantially reduces the elements' shear capacity. The experiments revealed that increasing the width of the openings has more effect than the depth at reducing the load-carrying capacity.


deep beams, reinforced concrete, T-beams, web opening, strut-and-tie model, finite element analysis, shear strength


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How to Cite

L. T. Hussein and R. M. Abbas, “A Semi-Empirical Equation based on the Strut-and-Tie Model for the Shear Strength Prediction of Deep Beams with Multiple Large Web Openings”, Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res., vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 8289–8295, Apr. 2022.


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