Investigation of the Effects of Distributed Generation on Protection Coordination in a Power System
Received: 14 July 2021 | Revised: 21 August 2021 | Accepted: 29 August 2021 | Online: 7 September 2021
The rapid increase of the electrical power demand gave rise to many challenging situations for power system control engineers as the transmission lines are operating at their maximum capacity in most developing economies. To solve this, Distributed Generation (DG), i.e. the generation of electrical power in a distribution network that provides clean energy, is gaining popularity. There are several challenges the protection of distribution networks faces after DG installation, such as variations in short circuit levels, protection blinding, reverse power flow, protection coordination, change in fault impedance, recloser-fuse coordination, selectivity, unsynchronized reclosing, false tripping, etc. In this paper, an IEEE 13-Bus System Radial Distribution System is simulated using Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP), various scenarios of DG placement are considered, their impact on the protection system is analyzed, and different techniques are proposed to minimize the effect on protection coordination. The use of directional relays, current limiting reactors, and small magnitude DGs is tested and analyzed. The way this effect varies by changing the location of DG is also analyzed.
Keywords:distributed generation, protection coordination, relays, radial distribution network
N. Jenkins, J. Ekanayake, and G. Strbac, Distributed Generation. London, UK: The Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1049/PBRN001E
X. Huang, Z. Zhang, and J. Jiang, "Fuel Cell Technology for Distributed Generation: An Overview," in 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Montreal, Canada, Jul. 2006, vol. 2, pp. 1613-1618. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2006.295713
C. L. T. Borges and D. M. Falcão, "Optimal distributed generation allocation for reliability, losses, and voltage improvement," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 413-420, Jul. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2006.02.003
K. Tuitemwong and S. Premrudeepreechacharn, "Expert system for protection coordination of distribution system with distributed generators," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 466-471, Mar. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2010.10.009
E. Purwar, D. N. Vishwakarma, and S. P. Singh, "A new adaptive inverse-time protection scheme for modern distribution systems with distributed generation," in 2017 IEEE Power Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT), Washington, DC, USA, Apr. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGT.2017.8086049
A. Meddeb, N. Sahbeni, H. Jmii, and S. Chebbi, "Impact of Distributed Generation on the Protection System in Tunisian Distribution Network," in 2018 15th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals Devices (SSD), Yasmine Hammamet, Tunisia, Mar. 2018, pp. 514-520. https://doi.org/10.1109/SSD.2018.8570584
A. Kamel, M. Alaam, A. Azmy, and A. Abdelaziz, "Protection Coordination Of Distribution Systems Equipped With Distributed Generations," Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal, vol. 2, pp. 1-13, May 2013.
M. A. Zamani, T. S. Sidhu, and A. Yazdani, "A Protection Strategy and Microprocessor-Based Relay for Low-Voltage Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 1873-1883, Jul. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2011.2120628
C. W. So and K. K. Li, "Protection relay coordination on ring-fed distribution network with distributed generations," in 2002 IEEE Region 10 Conference on Computers, Communications, Control and Power Engineering. TENCOM '02 Proceedings, Beijing, China, Oct. 2002, vol. 3, pp. 1885-1888 vol.3.
F. A. Viawan and M. Reza, "The impact of synchronous distributed generation on voltage dip and overcurrent protection coordination," in 2005 International Conference on Future Power Systems, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Nov. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/FPS.2005.204298
J. C. Gomez and M. M. Morcos, "Coordination of voltage sag and overcurrent protection in DG systems," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 214-218, Jan. 2005. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2004.839216
D. S. Kumar, D. Srinivasan, and T. Reindl, "A Fast and Scalable Protection Scheme for Distribution Networks With Distributed Generation," IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 67-75, Feb. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRD.2015.2464107
M. Dahal, A. K. Jha, and R. Ghimire, "Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Protection Coordination of Distribution System," International Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 36-42, Apr. 2019. https://doi.org/10.31873/IJEAS/6.4.2019.17
H. Zhan et al., "Relay Protection Coordination Integrated Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generation Sources in Distribution Networks," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 55-65, Jan. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2015.2420667
A. Girgis and S. Brahma, "Effect of distributed generation on protective device coordination in distribution system," in LESCOPE 01. 2001 Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering. Conference Proceedings. Theme: Powering Beyond 2001, Jul. 2001, pp. 115-119.
U. Shahzad, S. Kahrobaee, and S. Asgarpoor, "Protection of Distributed Generation: Challenges and Solutions," Energy and Power Engineering, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 614-653, Sep. 2017. https://doi.org/10.4236/epe.2017.910042
M. Barzegari, A. N. Fard, M. M. Hamidi, and A. J. Shahrood, "Optimal coordination of directional overcurrent relays in the presence of distributed generation using FCLs," in 2010 IEEE International Energy Conference, Manama, Bahrain, Dec. 2010, pp. 826-829. https://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2010.5771796
M. A. Aman, S. Ahmad, B. Noor, and F. W. Karam, "Mitigating the Adverse Impact of Un-Deterministic Distributed Generation on a Distribution System Considering Voltage Profile," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 2998-3003, Jun. 2018. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2033
M. A. Raza, K. L. Khatri, K. Rafique, and A. S. Saand, "Harnessing Electrical Power from Hybrid Biomass-Solid Waste Energy Resources for Microgrids in Underdeveloped and Developing Countries," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 7257-7261, Jun. 2021. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4177
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 432
PDF Downloads: 249
Copyright (c) 2021 A. Tariq, K. L. Khatri, M. I. U. Haque, M. A. Raza, S. Ahmed, M. Muzammil
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.