An Enhanced Electroporator Design for Pulse Generation
An electroporator is an instrument used for delivering electrical pulses to a tumor. In this work, an electroporator consisting of three main system blocks, namely High Voltage (HV) source, nanosecond (ns) switching, and pulse generation, was designed, developed, and evaluated to generate high voltage ns pulses to treat tumors. The high-voltage source block was used to convert the 9.6V DC from the battery to a variable HV output and store this charge for later use. The ns switching block contained a MOSFET-based low-side switch which applies short ns pulses to the load. The pulse generation block generates short ns pulses and supplies the adequate current to turn on the MOSFET at a quicker rate aiding the application of these pulses to the load. This process was simulated using PSpice software and the results are presented.
Keywords:electroporator, electrochemotherapy, microcontroller, boost converter
J. C. Weaver, "Electroporation of cells and tissues," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 24-33, Feb. 2000. https://doi.org/10.1109/27.842820
L. M. Mir, O. Tounekti, and S. Orlowski, "Bleomycin: Revival of an old drug," General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 745-748, Jul. 1996. https://doi.org/10.1016/0306-3623(95)02101-9
L. M. Mir, "Therapeutic perspectives of in vivo cell electropermeabilization," Bioelectrochemistry, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 1-10, Jan. 2001. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0302-4598(00)00112-4
T. B. Napotnik, M. Reberšek, T. Kotnik, E. Lebrasseur, G. Cabodevila, and D. Miklavčič, "Electropermeabilization of endocytotic vesicles in B16 F1 mouse melanoma cells," Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 407-413, May 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11517-010-0599-9
A. Gothelf, L. M. Mir, and J. Gehl, "Electrochemotherapy: results of cancer treatment using enhanced delivery of bleomycin by electroporation," Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 371-387, Oct. 2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0305-7372(03)00073-2
C. T. S. Ching, T. P. Sun, W. T. Huang, S. H. Huang, C. S. Hsiao, and K. M. Chang, "A circuit design of a low-cost, portable and programmable electroporation device for biomedical applications," Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, vol. 166-167, pp. 292-300, May 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2012.02.065
A. Al-Ateeq and A. J. Alateeq, "Soft-Charging Effects on a High Gain DC-to-DC Step-up Converter with PSC Voltage Multipliers," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6323-6329, Oct. 2020. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3773
M. Taherian, M. Allahbakhshi, E. Farjah, and H. Givi, "A Modular Topology of Marx Generator Using Buck-Boost Converter," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 549-558, Jan. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2018.2876474
BTX Harvard Apparatus, Holliston MA, USA, ECM 830 Electroporation System User's Manual Accessed: Aug. 29, 2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.btxonline.com/media/wysiwyg/tab_content/ECM_830.pdf
J. Cutrera, M. Torrero, K. Shiomitsu, N. Mauldin, and S. Li, "Intratumoral Bleomycin and IL-12 Electrochemogenetherapy for Treating Head and Neck Tumors in Dogs," in Electroporation Protocols: Preclinical and Clinical Gene Medicine, S. Li, Ed. Totowa, NJ, USA: Humana Press, 2008, pp. 319-325. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-194-9_24
P. Vu, D. T. Anh, and H. D. Chinh, "A Novel Modeling and Control Design of the Current-Fed Dual Active Bridge Converter under DPDPS Modulation," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 7054-7059, Apr. 2021. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.4067
B. Zhao, Q. Song, W. Liu, and Y. Sun, "Overview of Dual-Active-Bridge Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for High-Frequency-Link Power-Conversion System," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 4091-4106, Aug. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2013.2289913
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 222
PDF Downloads: 118
Copyright (c) 2021 P. Sadasivam, D. Najumnissa, S. Kavitha, R. R. Prabu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.