Improving the Recognition Performance of Lip Reading Using the Concatenated Three Sequence Keyframe Image Technique
Received: 17 February 2021 | Revised: 5 March 2021 | Accepted: 9 March 2021 | Online: 11 April 2021
This paper proposes a lip reading method based on convolutional neural networks applied to Concatenated Three Sequence Keyframe Image (C3-SKI), consisting of (a) the Start-Lip Image (SLI), (b) the Middle-Lip Image (MLI), and (c) the End-Lip Image (ELI) which is the end of the pronunciation of that syllable. The lip area’s image dimensions were reduced to 32×32 pixels per image frame and three keyframes concatenate together were used to represent one syllable with a dimension of 96×32 pixels for visual speech recognition. Every three concatenated keyframes representing any syllable are selected based on the relative maximum and relative minimum related to the open lip’s width and height. The evaluation results of the model’s effectiveness, showed accuracy, validation accuracy, loss, and validation loss values at 95.06%, 86.03%, 4.61%, and 9.04% respectively, for the THDigits dataset. The C3-SKI technique was also applied to the AVDigits dataset, showing 85.62% accuracy. In conclusion, the C3-SKI technique could be applied to perform lip reading recognition.
Keywords:concatenated frame images, convolutional neural network, keyframe reduction, keyframe sequence, lip reading
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