Seamless Transition between Islanded and Grid Connected Three-Phase VSI-based Microgrids
Published online first on February 12, 2021.
Microgrids (MGs) are the emergent solution to overcome the current electricity demand. The MGs provide the facility to operate in both isolated and grid-connected modes. For both operating modes, Distributed Generation (DG) inverters are operating under grid forming or grid following control modes. During mode switching, the MG experiences enormous fluctuations, which occur due to the unidirectional islanding event. This paper presents a control strategy by using the modified power control scheme, current controller, and DC linked voltage controller scheme to ensure the operational mode transfer smoothly from the grid-connected to the islanded mode and vice versa. The proposed control scheme is applied to a three-phase distributed energy resource-based MG system with fixed loads. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the control technique while tested at the point of common coupling and also at the time of mode transfer.
Keywords:grid forming, grid following, seamless transition, droop control
P. Singh, D. P. Kothari, and M. Singh, "Integration of Distributed Energy Resources," Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 91-96, 2014. https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.7.225
M. Castilla, L. G. de Vicuna, and J. Miret, "Control of Power Converters in AC Microgrids," in Microgrids Design and Implementation, A. C. Zambroni de Souza and M. Castilla, Eds. Cambridge, UK: Springer, 2019, pp. 139-170. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-98687-6_5
H. Etemadi and R. Iravani, "Supplementary mechanisms for smooth transition between control modes in a microgrid," Electric Power Systems Research, vol. 142, pp. 249-257, Jan. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2016.09.033
M. B. Delghavi and A. Yazdani, "A control strategy for islanded operation of a Distributed Resource (DR) unit," in IEEE Power Energy Society General Meeting, Calgary, Canada, Jul. 2009, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/PES.2009.5275592
X. Li, H. Zhang, M. B. Shadmand, and R. S. Balog, "Model Predictive Control of a Voltage-Source Inverter With Seamless Transition Between Islanded and Grid-Connected Operations," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 64, no. 10, pp. 7906-7918, Oct. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2017.2696459
Y. A. I. Mohamed and A. A. Radwan, "Hierarchical Control System for Robust Microgrid Operation and Seamless Mode Transfer in Active Distribution Systems," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 352-362, Jun. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2011.2136362
J. Wang, N. C. P. Chang, X. Feng, and A. Monti, "Design of a Generalized Control Algorithm for Parallel Inverters for Smooth Microgrid Transition Operation," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 4900-4914, Aug. 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2015.2404317
J. Kim, J. M. Guerrero, P. Rodriguez, R. Teodorescu, and K. Nam, "Mode Adaptive Droop Control With Virtual Output Impedances for an Inverter-Based Flexible AC Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 689-701, Mar. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2010.2091685
S. M. Ashabani and Y. A. I. Mohamed, "A Flexible Control Strategy for Grid-Connected and Islanded Microgrids With Enhanced Stability Using Nonlinear Microgrid Stabilizer," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1291-1301, Sep. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2012.2202131
S. Sajadian and R. Ahmadi, "Model Predictive Control of Dual-Mode Operations Z-Source Inverter: Islanded and Grid-Connected," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 4488-4497, May 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2017.2723358
G. G. Talapur, H. M. Suryawanshi, L. Xu, and A. B. Shitole, "A Reliable Microgrid With Seamless Transition Between Grid Connected and Islanded Mode for Residential Community With Enhanced Power Quality," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 5246-5255, Sep. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIA.2018.2808482
Z. Guo, D. Sha, and X. Liao, "Voltage magnitude and frequency control of three-phase voltage source inverter for seamless transfer," IET Power Electronics, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 200-208, Jan. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-pel.2012.0723
K. Lim, I. Song, and J. Choi, "Indirect Current Control for Seamless Transfer of Utility Interactive Inverter," in International Power Electronics Conference, Niigata, Japan, May 2018, pp. 803-808. https://doi.org/10.23919/IPEC.2018.8507999
C. Chen, Y. Wang, J. Lai, Y. Lee, and D. Martin, "Design of Parallel Inverters for Smooth Mode Transfer Microgrid Applications," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 6-15, Jan. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2009.2025864
L. G. Meegahapola, D. Robinson, A. P. Agalgaonkar, S. Perera, and P. Ciufo, "Microgrids of Commercial Buildings: Strategies to Manage Mode Transfer From Grid Connected to Islanded Mode," IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 1337-1347, Oct. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2014.2305657
H. Mahmood and Jin Jiang, "A control strategy of a distributed generation unit for seamless transfer between grid connected and islanded modes," in IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Istanbul, Turkey, Jun. 2014, pp. 2518-2523. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISIE.2014.6865016
Y. Chen, J. M. Guerrero, Z. Shuai, Z. Chen, L. Zhou, and A. Luo, "Fast Reactive Power Sharing, Circulating Current and Resonance Suppression for Parallel Inverters Using Resistive-Capacitive Output Impedance," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5524-5537, Aug. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2493103
J. C. Vasquez, J. M. Guerrero, A. Luna, P. Rodriguez, and R. Teodorescu, "Adaptive Droop Control Applied to Voltage-Source Inverters Operating in Grid-Connected and Islanded Modes," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, no. 10, pp. 4088-4096, Oct. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2027921
"IEEE Standard for Interconnecting Distributed Resources with Electric Power Systems," IEEE Std 1547-2003, pp. 1-28, Jul. 2003.
M. Syahril, M. A. Roslan, and B. Ismail, "Microgrid synchronization using power offset through a central controller," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1432, Jan. 2020, Art. no. 012019. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1432/1/012019
G. Lou, W. Gu, J. Wang, J. Wang, and B. Gu, "A Unified Control Scheme Based on a Disturbance Observer for Seamless Transition Operation of Inverter-Interfaced Distributed Generation," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 5444-5454, Sep. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2017.2769675
E. Pathan, A. A. Bakar, S. A. Zulkifi, M. H. Khan, H. Arshad, and M. Asad, "A Robust Frequency Controller based on Linear Matrix Inequality for a Parallel Islanded Microgrid," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 6264-6269, Oct. 2020. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3769
J. Liu, Y. Miura, and T. Ise, "Comparison of Dynamic Characteristics Between Virtual Synchronous Generator and Droop Control in Inverter-Based Distributed Generators," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 3600-3611, May 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2465852
U. Tamrakar, D. Shrestha, M. Maharjan, B. P. Bhattarai, T. M. Hansen, and R. Tonkoski, "Virtual Inertia: Current Trends and Future Directions," Applied Sciences, vol. 7, no. 7, Jul. 2017, Art. no. 654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070654
X. Meng, Z. Liu, J. Liu, T. Wu, S. Wang, and B. Liu, "Comparison between virtual synchronous generator and droop controlled inverter," in IEEE 2nd Annual Southern Power Electronics Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, Dec. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/SPEC.2016.7846007
B. Shoeiby, R. Davoodnezhad, D. G. Holmes, and B. P. McGrath, "A resonant current regulator based microgrid control strategy with smooth transition between islanded and grid-connected modes," in IEEE 5th International Symposium on Power Electronics for Distributed Generation Systems, Galway, Ireland, Jun. 2014, pp. 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1109/PEDG.2014.6878631
E. Pathan et al., "Virtual Impedance-based Decentralized Power Sharing Control of an Islanded AC Microgrid," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 6620-6625, Feb. 2021. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.3946
L. Xia and L. Hai, "Comparison of dynamic power sharing characteristics between virtual synchronous generator and droop control in inverter-based microgrid," in IEEE 3rd International Future Energy Electronics Conference and ECCE Asia, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Jun. 2017, pp. 1548-1552. https://doi.org/10.1109/IFEEC.2017.7992276
Z. Chen, W. Zhang, J. Cai, T. Cai, Z. Xu, and N. Yan, "A synchronization control method for micro-grid with droop control," in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Montreal,Canada, Sep. 2015, pp. 519-524. https://doi.org/10.1109/ECCE.2015.7309733
G. Shen, X. Zhu, J. Zhang, and D. Xu, "A New Feedback Method for PR Current Control of LCL-Filter-Based Grid-Connected Inverter," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 2033-2041, Jun. 2010. https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2010.2040552
G. Shen, D. Xu, L. Cao, and X. Zhu, "An Improved Control Strategy for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters With an LCL Filter," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1899-1906, Jul. 2008. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2008.924602
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 409
PDF Downloads: 276
Copyright (c) 2021 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.