Load Shedding in Microgrids with Consideration of Voltage Quality Improvement
Received: 5 November 2020 | Revised: 2 December 2020 | Accepted: 7 December 2020 | Online: 6 February 2021
Microgrids have become more and more popular their usefulness as a renewable energy resource has been recognized. The core ability and promise of microgrids is addressing the environmental concerns due to climate change that have been growing during recent years. The innovation of microgrids is that they are designed to operate either in island mode or interconnected with the main grid system. However, when the microgrid operates in islanded mode, faults may occur which can cause system collapse or even blackout. Load curtailment schemes can be utilized to decrease the quantity of associated load to a level that can be securely supported by accessible generation in isolated mode. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the optimal amount of shedding power considering sustainable power sources, with the help of primary and secondary adjustments of the generator to restore the frequency to the allowed range. Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm is applied in this paper to determine the distributed shedding power on each demand load bus which can improve the voltage quality of the isolated microgrid system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through the simulation of IEEE 16- bus microgrid.
Keywords:load shedding, islanded microgrid, primary and secondary adjustment, particle swarm optimization
Z. Zhao, P. Yang, J. M. Guerrero, Z. Xu, and T. C. Green, "Multiple-Time-Scales Hierarchical Frequency Stability Control Strategy of Medium-Voltage Isolated Microgrid," IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics, vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 5974-5991, Aug. 2016. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPEL.2015.2496869
H. Gao, Y. Chen, Y. Xu, and C. Liu, "Dynamic load shedding for an islanded microgrid with limited generation resources," Transmission Distribution IET Generation, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 2953-2961, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.1452
D. L. H. Aik, "A general-order system frequency response model incorporating load shedding: analytic modeling and applications," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 709-717, May 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2006.873123
V. V. Terzija, "Adaptive underfrequency load shedding based on the magnitude of the disturbance estimation," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 1260-1266, Aug. 2006. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2006.879315
J. A. Laghari, H. Mokhlis, A. H. A. Bakar, and H. Mohamad, "Application of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding in power systems: A review," Energy Conversion and Management, vol. 75, pp. 130-140, Nov. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.06.010
M. Lagouir, A. Badri, and Y. Sayouti, "Optimal power flow management strategies of MicroGrid, using Petri Nets and fuzzy logic approaches," in 2018 4th International Conference on Optimization and Applications (ICOA), Mohammedia, Morocco, Apr. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICOA.2018.8370517
J. Tang, J. Liu, F. Ponci, and A. Monti, "Adaptive load shedding based on combined frequency and voltage stability assessment using synchrophasor measurements," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 2035-2047, May 2013. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2241794
A. A. Sallam and A. M. Khafaga, "Fuzzy expert system using load shedding for voltage instability control," in LESCOPE'02. 2002 Large Engineering Systems Conference on Power Engineering. Conference Proceedings, Halifax, Canada, Jun. 2002, pp. 125-132.
R. Khezri, S. Golshannavaz, R. Vakili, and B. Memar-Esfahani, "Multi-layer fuzzy-based under-frequency load shedding in back-pressure smart industrial microgrids," Energy, vol. 132, pp. 96-105, Aug. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.059
B. de Nadai N., A. C. Z. de Souza, J. A. da S. Neto, J. G. de C. Costa, F. M. Portelinha, and D. Marujo, "An OffLine Fuzzy-Based Decision-Making to Load Shedding in Microgrids," in 2019 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference - Latin America (ISGT Latin America), Gramado, Brazil, Sep. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/ISGT-LA.2019.8895409
B. Bahmani-Firouzi, E. Farjah, and R. Azizipanah-Abarghooee, "An efficient scenario-based and fuzzy self-adaptive learning particle swarm optimization approach for dynamic economic emission dispatch considering load and wind power uncertainties," Energy, vol. 50, pp. 232-244, Feb. 2013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2012.11.017
P. D. Chung, "Retaining of Frequency in Micro-grid with Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 3646-3651, Dec. 2018. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2413
T. N. Le, H. A. Quyen, and N. A. Nguyen, "Application of fuzzy-analytic hierarchy process algorithm and fuzzy load profile for load shedding in power systems," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 77, pp. 178-184, May 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2015.11.044
R. Hooshmand and M. Moazzami, "Optimal design of adaptive under frequency load shedding using artificial neural networks in isolated power system," International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 220-228, Nov. 2012. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2012.04.021
F. Conteh et al., "An effective Load shedding technique for micro-grids using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system," AIMS Energy, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 814-837, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3934/energy.2017.5.814
Y. Astriani, G. Shafiullah, and F. Shahnia, "Optimizing Under-voltage Load-shedding Using Genetic Algorithm in Microgrid," in 2019 2nd International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Power Systems (ICHVEPS), Oct. 2019, pp. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICHVEPS47643.2019.9011109
C. Chen, W.-T. Tsai, H. Chen, C.-Y. Lee, C.-J. Chen, and H.-W. Lan, "Optimal load shedding planning with genetic algorithm," in 2011 IEEE Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL, USA, Oct. 2011. https://doi.org/10.1109/IAS.2011.6074299
F. He, Y. Wang, K. W. Chan, Y. Zhang, and S. Mei, "Optimal load shedding strategy based on particle swarm optimization," in 8th International Conference on Advances in Power System Control, Operation and Management (APSCOM 2009), Hong Kong, China, Nov. 2009.
N. Sadati, T. Amraee, and A. M. Ranjbar, "A global Particle Swarm-Based-Simulated Annealing Optimization technique for under-voltage load shedding problem," Applied Soft Computing, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 652-657, Mar. 2009. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asoc.2008.09.005
A. J. Wood, B. F. Wollenberg, and G. B. Sheblé, Power Generation, Operation, and Control, 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ, USA: Wiley-Interscience, 2013.
K. Soleimani and J. Mazloum, "Designing a GA-Based Robust Controller For Load Frequency Control (LFC)," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 2633-2639, Apr. 2018. https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1592
J. Kennedy and R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization," in ICNN'95-International Conference on Neural Networks, 1995, vol. 4, pp. 1942-1948.
W. Shi, X. Xie, C. Chu, and R. Gadh, "Distributed Optimal Energy Management in Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1137-1146, May 2015. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2014.2373150
Q. Zhou, Z. Li, Q. Wu, and M. Shahidehpour, "Two-Stage Load Shedding for Secondary Control in Hierarchical Operation of Islanded Microgrids," IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 3103-3111, May 2019. https://doi.org/10.1109/TSG.2018.2817738
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 483
PDF Downloads: 341
Copyright (c) 2121 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.