Safety, Connectivity, and Comfortability as Improvement Indicators of Walkability to the Bus Stops in Penang Island
This study investigates the determinants of walkability by evaluating assessment indicators by constructing a path model based on on-site data collected in Penang. Based on the path analysis, safety (β2=0.691, t=9.301, p<0.01) and connectivity (β1=0.559, t=8.048, p<0.01) have a positive correlation to walkability. Meanwhile, walkability shows a negative correlation with the number of private vehicles. The findings of this study allow the authorities to focus on enhancing the safety of walking facilities that give access to bus stops which will probably increase the likeliness of using the public bus services. The findings from this study also reveal the underlying factors that can boost the public to adopt walking as an active mode of transport and thus reduce the dependency on private vehicles.
Keywords:walkability, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), factor analysis, sustainable transport, public transport
L. D. Frank, J. F. Sallis, T. L. Conway, J. E. Chapman, B. E. Saelens, and W. Bachman, "Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index, and Air Quality," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 75-87, Mar. 2006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01944360608976725
B. Giles-Corti, P. Hooper, S. Foster, J. Koohsari, and J. Francis, Low density development: Impacts on physical activity and associated health outcomes. Melbourne, Australia: National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2014.
R. H. Glazier et al., "Density, Destinations or Both? A Comparison of Measures of Walkability in Relation to Transportation Behaviors, Obesity and Diabetes in Toronto, Canada," PLoS one, vol. 9, no. 1, Jan. 2014, Art. no. e85295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085295
G. L. Booth et al., "Unwalkable neighborhoods, poverty, and the risk of diabetes among recent immigrants to Canada compared with long-term residents," Diabetes Care, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 302-308, Feb. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2337/dc12-0777
M. I. Creatore et al., "Association of Neighborhood Walkability With Change in Overweight, Obesity, and Diabetes," JAMA, vol. 315, no. 20, p. 2211, May 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.5898
M. Chiu, B. R. Shah, L. C. Maclagan, M.-R. Rezai, P. C. Austin, and J. V. Tu, "Walk Score® and the prevalence of utilitarian walking and obesity among Ontario adults: A cross-sectional study," Health Reports, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 3-10, Jul. 2015.
R. Rafiemanzelat, M. I. Emadi, and A. J. Kamali, "City sustainability: the influence of walkability on built environments," Transportation Research Procedia, vol. 24, pp. 97-104, Jan. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.074
T. Ruxyn, "Death Rates On Malaysian Roads Is 3rd Highest Globally, More Than China And India," SAYS, Jun. 21, 2017. https://says.com/my/news/malaysia-s-roads-among-the-world-s-most-dangerous-and-deadliest (accessed Nov. 07, 2020).
D. S. Vale and M. Pereira, "Influence on pedestrian commuting behavior of the built environment surrounding destinations: A structural equations modeling approach," International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 730-741, Sep. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2016.1144836
G. Corpuz, A. Hay, and D. Merom, ", Grace, Annette Hay, and Dafna Merom. 'Walking for transport and health: Trends in Sydney in the last decade.,'" presented at the 28th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Sydney, Australia, 2005.
C. Townsend and J. Zacharias, "Built environment and pedestrian behavior at rail rapid transit stations in Bangkok," Transportation, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 317-330, Mar. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11116-009-9226-8
A. W. Agrawal, M. Schlossberg, and K. Irvin, "How Far, by Which Route and Why? A Spatial Analysis of Pedestrian Preference," Journal of Urban Design, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 81-98, Feb. 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13574800701804074
N. Tilahun, S. Yin, M. Li, and Y. Keita, "Mapping Metropolitan Chicago's Accessibility," University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA, 2015.
P. Maghelal and C. J. Capp, "Walkability: A Review of Existing Pedestrian Indices," URISA Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 5-19, Jan. 2011.
N. S. Abdul Sukor and S. Muhammad Fisal, "Factors influencing the willingness to walk to the bus stops in Penang Island," Planning Malaysia, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 193-204, Jul. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21837/pmjournal.v16.i5.423
R. Daniels and C. Mulley, "Explaining walking distance to public transport: The dominance of public transport supply," Journal of Transport and Land Use, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 5-20, Aug. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5198/jtlu.v6i2.308
A. L. Freeland, S. N. Banerjee, A. L. Dannenberg, and A. M. Wendel, "Walking associated with public transit: moving toward increased physical activity in the United States," American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 536-542, Mar. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2012.300912
P. Pongprasert and H. Kubota, "Switching from motorcycle taxi to walking: A case study of transit station access in Bangkok, Thailand," IATSS Research, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 182-190, Dec. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iatssr.2017.03.003
D. Simons, P. Clarys, I. De Bourdeaudhuij, B. de Geus, C. Vandelanotte, and B. Deforche, "Why do young adults choose different transport modes? A focus group study," Transport Policy, vol. 36, pp. 151-159, Nov. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2014.08.009
T. Litman, "Economic Value of Walkability," Transportation Research Record, vol. 1828, no. 1, pp. 3-11, Jan. 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/1828-01
R. Kumar, Walkability of Neighborhoods: A Critical Analysis of the Role Played by Zoning Codes in Creating a Walkable Environment. Saarbrücken, Germany: LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, 2010.
J. Zakaria and N. Ujang, "Comfort of Walking in the City Center of Kuala Lumpur," Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 170, pp. 642-652, Jan. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.066
J. Ji and X. Gao, "Analysis of people's satisfaction with public transportation in Beijing," Habitat International, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 464-470, Oct. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.habitatint.2009.12.003
I. Ker and S. Ginn, "Myths and realities in walkable catchments: the case of walking and transit," in Publication of: ARRB Transport Research, Limited, 2003, Accessed: Nov. 07, 2020. [Online]. Available: https://trid.trb.org/view/665133.
"Penang Master Plan - Penang." http://pgmasterplan.penang.gov.my/ (accessed Nov. 07, 2020).
"West Sussex County Council Transport Assessment Methodology." West Sussex County Council, Jun. 2017.
B. E. Phillips and P. Joyce, "Ryerson Church Transportation Assessment and Management Study," Bunt & Associates, Vancouver, Canada, 4827-07, Dec. 2016.
Transport assessment - guidelines for development proposals in Northern Ireland. Belfast, UK: Department of the Environment for Northern Ireland, 2006.
"Transport Assessment, Granta Park Phase II," Glanville, Oxfordshire, UK, 2010.
"TOD Standard - Institute for Transportation and Development Policy," ITDP. https://www.itdp.org/2017/06/23/tod-standard/.
Pedestrian planning and design guide. New Zealand: NZ Transport Agency, 2009.
K. McNally, "Design Guidelines for Walkable Communities," Niehoff Studio, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA, Jan. 2010.
Transport Assessment Guidance. Glasgow, UK: Transport Scotland, 2012.
Garis Panduan Perancangan Kejiranan Hijau. Malaysia: Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa Semenanjung Malaysia, Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan, 2012.
J. F. J. Hair, W. C. Black, B. J. Babin, and R. E. Anderson, Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson, 2009.
T. Cleff, "Univariate Data Analysis," in Exploratory Data Analysis in Business and Economics: An Introduction Using SPSS, Stata, and Excel, T. Cleff, Ed. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 23-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-01517-0_3
A. Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 3rd Edition, 3rd ed. Los Angeles, CA, USA: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2009.
J. F. Hair Jr, M. Sarstedt, L. Hopkins, and V. G. Kuppelwieser, "Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): An emerging tool in business research," European Business Review, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 106-121, Jan. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-10-2013-0128
J. Hair, G. T. M. Hult, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt, A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, 1st ed. Los Angeles, CA, USA: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2013.
W. Chin, "Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modeling," MIS Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 1, Mar. 1998.
J. Henseler, C. M. Ringle, and R. R. Sinkovics, "The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing," in New Challenges to International Marketing, vol. 20, R. R. Sinkovics and P. N. Ghauri, Eds. Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2009, pp. 277-319. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/S1474-7979(2009)0000020014
J. F. Hair, C. M. Ringle, and M. Sarstedt, "PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet," Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 139-152, Apr. 2011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679190202
C. Fornell and D. F. Larcker, "Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error: Algebra and Statistics," Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 382-388, Aug. 1981. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800313
S. Streukens and S. Leroi-Werelds, "Bootstrapping and PLS-SEM: A step-by-step guide to get more out of your bootstrap results," European Management Journal, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 618-632, Dec. 2016. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2016.06.003
K. Wong, "Partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) techniques using SmartPLS," Marketing Bulletin, vol. 24, pp. 1-32, Jan. 2013.
O. L. H. Leh, N. I. Z. Hasri, and S. N. A. M. Musthafa, "Residents' transportation mode preferences in Transit Oriented Area: A case study of Mentari Court, Petaling Jaya, Malaysia," Geografia-Malaysian Journal of Society and Space, vol. 12, no. 1, Sep. 2017
E. Shay, C. Spoon, and A. Khattak, "Walkable Environments and Walking Activity," University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA, Jan. 2004.
A. Jawed, M. a. H. Talpur, I. A. Chandio, and P. N. Mahesar, "Impacts of In-Accessible and Poor Public Transportation System on Urban Enviroment: Evidence from Hyderabad, Pakistan," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 3896-3899, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2482
S. Gori, M. Nigro, and M. Petrelli, "Walkability Indicators for Pedestrian-Friendly Design," Transportation Research Record, vol. 2464, no. 1, pp. 38-45, Jan. 2014. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3141/2464-05
E. Papa and L. Bertolini, "Accessibility and Transit-Oriented Development in European metropolitan areas," Journal of Transport Geography, vol. 47, pp. 70-83, Jul. 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2015.07.003
N. Abdul Ghani, T. Shimizu, and S. Mokhtar, "Assessment of Pedestrian Facilities in Malacca World Heritage Site, Malaysia using P-Index Method," Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, vol. 11, pp. 1535-1554, 2015.
S. Makki, M. Surat, A. I. Che-Ani, H. Farkisch, and H. R. Mokhtarian, "The importance of design characteristics in walking from student's perspective: a case study in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia," Journal of Building Performance, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 42-49, 2012.
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 371
PDF Downloads: 271
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.