FEATHER: A Proposed Lightweight Protocol for Mobile Cloud Computing Security
Ensuring security for lightweight cryptosystems in mobile cloud computing is challenging. Encryption speed and battery consumption must be maintained while securing mobile devices, the server, and the communication channel. This study proposes a lightweight security protocol called FEATHER which implements MICKEY 2.0 to generate keystream in the cloud server and to perform mobile device decryption and encryption. FEATHER can be used to implement secure parameters and lightweight mechanisms for communication among mobile devices and between them and a cloud server. FEATHER is faster than the existing CLOAK protocol and consumes less battery power. FEATHER also allows more mobile devices to communicate at the same time during very short time periods, maintain security for more applications with minimum computation ability. FEATHER meets mobile cloud computing requirements of speed, identity, and confidentiality assurances, compatibility with mobile devices, and effective communication between cloud servers and mobile devices using an unsafe communication channel.
Keywords:mobile cloud computing, lightweight encryption, battery consumption, offloading tasks, MICKEY 2.0
P. Bahl, R. Y. Han, L. E. Li, and M. Satyanarayanan, "Advancing the state of mobile cloud computing," in Proceedings of the third ACM workshop on Mobile cloud computing and services, Low Wood Bay, Lake District, UK, Jun. 2012, pp. 21-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2307849.2307856
K. Kumar and Y. Lu, "Cloud Computing for Mobile Users: Can Offloading Computation Save Energy?," Computer, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 51-56, Apr. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MC.2010.98
H. Dinh Thai, C. Lee, D. Niyato, and P. Wang, "A survey of mobile cloud computing: Architecture, applications, and approaches," Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 1587-1611, Dec. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/wcm.1203
"Number of mobile phone users worldwide 2015-2020," Statista. https://www.statista.com/statistics/274774/forecast-of-mobile-phone-users-worldwide/ (accessed Jul. 23, 2020).
G. Singh and S. Kinger, "A Study of Encryption Algorithms (RSA, DES, 3DES and AES) for Information Security," International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 67, no. 19, pp. 33-38, Apr. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5120/11507-7224
A. Bogdanov, F. Mendel, F. Regazzoni, V. Rijmen, and E. Tischhauser, "ALE: AES-Based Lightweight Authenticated Encryption," in Fast Software Encryption, Berlin: Springer, 2014, pp. 447-466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-43933-3_23
G. Desolda, C. Ardito, H.-C. Jetter, and R. Lanzilotti, "Exploring spatially-aware cross-device interaction techniques for mobile collaborative sensemaking," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 122, pp. 1-20, Aug. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2018.08.006
T. Eisenbarth, S. Kumar, C. Paar, A. Poschmann, and L. Uhsadel, "A Survey of Lightweight-Cryptography Implementations," IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 522-533, Dec. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MDT.2007.178
Alamer, Soh, and Brumbaugh, "MICKEY 2.0.85: A Secure and Lighter MICKEY 2.0 Cipher Variant with Improved Power Consumption for Smaller Devices in the IoT," Symmetry, vol. 12, no. 1, Dec. 2019, Art. no. 32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010032
P. Kitsos, N. Sklavos, G. Provelengios, and A. N. Skodras, "FPGA-based performance analysis of stream ciphers ZUC, Snow3g, Grain V1, Mickey V2, Trivium and E0," Microprocessors and Microsystems, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 235-245, Mar. 2013. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpro.2012.09.007
A. H. Al-Omari, "Lightweight Dynamic Crypto Algorithm for Next Internet Generation," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 4203-4208, Jun. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2743
M. Ali, N. Q. Soomro, H. Ali, A. Awan, and M. Kirmani, "Distributed File Sharing and Retrieval Model for Cloud Virtual Environment," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 4062-4065, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2662
M. K. Hassan, A. Babiker, M. Baker, and M. Hamad, "SLA Management For Virtual Machine Live Migration Using Machine Learning with Modified Kernel and Statistical Approach," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2459-2463, Feb. 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1692
M. Bahrami and M. Singhal, "A Light-Weight Permutation Based Method for Data Privacy in Mobile Cloud Computing," in 3rd IEEE International Conference on Mobile Cloud Computing, Services, and Engineering, San Francisco, CA, USA, Apr. 2015, pp. 189-198. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/MobileCloud.2015.36
J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, The Design of RijndaeL: AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard. Berlin: Springer, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-04722-4_1
D. A. Osvik, J. Bos, D. Stefan, and D. Canright, "Fast software AES encryption," presented at the 17th International Workshop on Fast Software Encryption, Seoul, Korea, Feb. 2010, vol. 6147, pp. 75-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13858-4_5
M. Yoshikawa and H. Goto, "Security verification simulator for fault analysis attacks," International Journal of Soft Computing and Software Engineering, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 467-473, 2013.
J. Daemen and V. Rijmen, The Design of Rijndael: AES - The Advanced Encryption Standard. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-04722-4_1
D. A. Osvik, J. W. Bos, D. Stefan, and D. Canright, "Fast Software AES Encryption," in Fast Software Encryption, S. Hong and T. Iwata, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 75-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-13858-4_5
M. Robshaw and O. Billet, Eds., New Stream Cipher Designs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68351-3
A. J. Menezes, P. C. Van Oorschot, and S. A. Vanstone, Handbook of applied cryptography. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC press, 2018. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1201/9780429466335
L. Diedrich, P. Jattke, L. Murati, M. Senker, and A. Wiesmaier, "Comparison of Lightweight Stream Ciphers: MICKEY 2.0, WG-8, Grain and Trivium," 2016.
A. Banerjee, M. Hasan, M. A. Rahman, and R. Chapagain, "CLOAK: A Stream Cipher Based Encryption Protocol for Mobile Cloud Computing," IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 17678-17691, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2744670
C. De Canniere, "Trivium: A Stream Cipher Construction Inspired by Block Cipher Design Principles," in Information Security, vol. 4176, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006, pp. 171-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/11836810_13
M. Hell, T. Johansson, and W. Meier, "Grain: A stream cipher for constrained environments," IJWMC, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 86-93, Jan. 2007. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1504/IJWMC.2007.013798
S. Babbage and M. Dodd, "The MICKEY Stream Ciphers," in New Stream Cipher Designs: The eSTREAM Finalists, M. Robshaw and O. Billet, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 191-209. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68351-3_15
M. S. Turan and A. Dog, "Detailed Statistical Analysis of Synchronous Stream Ciphers," presented at the SASC 2006 - Stream Ciphers Revisited, Leuven, Belgium, Feb. 2006.
S. Al Hinai, L. M. Batten, and B. Colbert, "Mutually Clock-Controlled Feedback Shift Registers Provide Resistance to Algebraic Attacks," in Information Security and Cryptology, vol. 4990, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008, pp. 201-215. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79499-8_17
A. R. Kazmi, M. Afzal, M. F. Amjad, H. Abbas, and X. Yang, "Algebraic Side Channel Attack on Trivium and Grain Ciphers," IEEE Access, vol. 5, pp. 23958-23968, 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2766234
V. Adithya, R. Ramya, D. V. Kumar, and M. M. Krishnan, "Cloak Encryption in Apache," International Journal of Advance Research and Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 184-187, 2018.
S. Anand and V. Perumal, "EECDH to prevent MITM attack in cloud computing," Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 276-287, Nov. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dcan.2019.10.007
"GSam Battery Monitor - Apps on Google Play." https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.gsamlabs.bbm&hl=en_AU (accessed Jul. 23, 2020).
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 372
PDF Downloads: 264
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.