A Two Element Plasma Antenna Array
This theoretical study presents the characteristics of plasma monopole antennas in the VHF/UHF range using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulation. Results show that more broadband characteristics can be obtained by increasing the diameter of the plasma tube and that the minor lobes diminish in intensity as diameter increases. Furthermore, the nulls are replaced by low level radiation. Since the collision frequency, which is a function of gas pressure, represents the loss mechanism of plasma, decreasing its value increases the gain and radar cross section (RCS) of the antenna. Theoretical modeling shows that at higher plasma frequencies with respect to the signal frequency, the gain and radar cross section of the plasma antenna are high enough and that the impedance curves are altered as the plasma frequency varies. Using these preliminary studies, mutual impedance and gain of a broadside array of two parallel side-by-side plasma elements is presented.
Keywords:plasma antenna, radiation pattern, gain, input impedance, surface wave
J. P. Rayner, A. P. Wichello, A. D. Cheetham, “Physical characteristics of plasma antennas”, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 269-281, 2004 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2004.826019
G. Cerri, R. De Leo, V. M. Primiani, P. Russo, “Measurement of the properties of a plasma column used as a radiating element”, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 57, No. 2, pp. 242-247, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIM.2007.909503
T. Anderson, I. Alexeff, E. Farshi, N. Karnam, E. P. Pradeep, N. R. Pulasani, J. Peck, “An operating intelligent plasma antenna”, 16th IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, New Mexico USA, pp. 353-356, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/PPPS.2007.4651857
Y. Lee, S. Ganguly, “Analysis of a plasma-column antenna using FDTD method”, Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 252-259, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mop.20959
Z. H. Qian, R. S. Chen, K. W. Leung, H. W. Yang, "FDTD analysis of microstrip patch antenna covered by plasma sheath”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 52, pp. 173-183, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2528/PIER04080901
P. Russo, G. Cerri, E. Vecchioni, “Self consistent analysis of cylindrical plasma antennas”, IEEE Transactions on Antenna and Propagation, Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 1503-1511, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TAP.2011.2122292
Z. H. Qian, R. S. Chen, Z. H. Fan, P. L. Rui, “Analysis of electromagnetic scattering from plasma antenna using CG-FFT method”, International Journal of Infrared and Millimeter Waves, Vol. 29, No. 5, pp. 486-492, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10762-008-9339-8
F. Sadeghikia, F. Hodjat-Kashani, J. Rashed-Mohassel, J. Ghayoomeh-Bozorgi, “Characterization of a surface wave driven plasma monopole antenna”, Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, Vol. 26, No. 2-3, pp. 239–250, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/156939312800030857
Oleg A. Popov, High density plasma sources: design, physics and performance, Noyes publication, Park Ridge, New Jersey, 1995
R. Kumar, D. Bora, “Experimental study of parameters of a plasma antenna”, Plasma Science and Technology, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 592-600, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/1009-0630/12/5/17
Z. Rakem, P. Leprince, J. Marec, “Characteristics of a surface wave produced discharge operating under standing wave conditions”, Revue Physique Appliquee, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 125-130, 1990 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/rphysap:01990002501012500
L. J. Nickisch, P. M. Franke, “Finite-difference time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations for the dispersive ionosphere”, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 33-39, 1992 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/74.163808
K. S. Kunz, R. J. Rubbers, The finite difference time domain method for electromagnetics, CRC press, Boca Raton, FL, 1993
A. Taflove, Computational electromagnetics: The finite difference time domain method, Artech House, Boston, FL, 1995
R. J. Luebbers, K. S. Kunz, M. Schneider, F. Hansberger, “A finite-difference time-domain near zone to far zone transformation [electromagnetic scattering]”, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 429-433, 1991 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/8.81453
A. Balanis, Antenna theory, analysis and design, John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey, 2005
U. Kortshagen, C. Busch, L. D. Tsendin, “On simplifying approaches to the solution of the Boltzmann equation in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas”, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 1-17, 1996 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1088/0963-0252/5/1/001
M. Y. Naz, A. Ghaffar, N. U. Rehman, S. Naseer, M. Zakaullah, “Double and triple Langmuir probes measurements in inductively coupled nitrogen plasma”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 114, pp. 113-128, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2528/PIER10110309
M. Y. Naz, A. Ghaffar, N. U. Rehman, M. Azam, S. Shukrullah, A. Qayyum, M. Zakaullah, “Symmetric and asymmetric double Langmuir probes characterization of radio frequency inductively coupled Nitrogen plasma”, Progress in Electromagnetics Research, Vol. 115, pp. 207-221, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2528/PIER11030408
I. L. Morrow, J. R. James, “Fundamental limitation on excitation of a surface wave on a plasma column”, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Texas, USA, Vol. 4, pp. 272-275, 2002
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 568
PDF Downloads: 194
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.