Design, Simulation, Modeling, and Implementation of a Square Helmholtz Coil in Contrast with a Circular Coil for MRI Applications
This paper focuses on Helmholtz-type coils that can produce a second-order homogeneity field to be used for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. A Helmholtz coil is a device used for producing a region of a nearly uniform magnetic field. It consists of two identical magnetic coils that are placed symmetrically along a common axis, one on either side of the experimental area, separated by a distance equal to the radius of the circular coil and half-length of the side of the square coils. Each coil carries an equal electrical current flowing in the same direction. The main objective of this article is to calculate the magnetic field provided by the coils at any point in space and to show and compare the uniform magnetic field induced by the square and circular Helmholtz coils. With the aid of MATLAB simulation tool, mathematical equations are simulated to demonstrate the axial magnetic field produced by one and two loops. Also, the design and simulation of electrical modeling for square and circular Helmholtz coils are performed using PSPICE. Finally, these coils are realized and tested experimentally, and the results for square and circular Helmholtz coils are compared.
Keywords:square and circular Helmholtz coil, radiofrequency coils, modeling, simulation, MATLAB, PSPICE, electromagnetic field measurement, impedance measurements, MRI
F. Romeo, D. I. Hoult, “Magnet field profiling: analysis and correcting coil design”, Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 44-65, 1984 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/mrm.1910010107
C. E. Hayes, W. A. Edelstein, J. F. Schenck, O. M. Mueller, M. Eash, “An efficient, highly homogeneous radiofrequency coil for whole-body NMR imaging at 1.5 T”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 63, pp. 622-628, 1985 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2364(85)90257-4
L. Guendouz, S. M. A. Ghaly, A. Hedjiedj, J. M. Escanye, D. Canet, “Improved Helmholtz-type magnetic resonance imaging coils with high-B1 homogeneity-spherical and ellipsoidal four-coil systems”, Concepts in Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 33B, No. 1, pp. 9-20, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/cmr.b.20106
K. Asher, N. K. Bangerter, R. D. Watkins, G. E. Gold, “Radiofrequency coils for musculoskeletal MRI”, Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 315–323, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/RMR.0b013e31823cd184
S. M. A. Ghaly, L. Guendouz, A. Hedjiedj, J. M. Escanye, D. Canet, “Improved Helmholtz-type coils with high B1 homogeneity-spherical and ellipsoidal configurations”, 24th IASTED International Multi-Conference on Biomedical Engineering, Innsbruck, Austria, February 15-17, 2006
S. Li, Q. X. Yang, M. B. Smith, “RF coil optimization: Evaluation of B1 field homogeneity using field histograms and finite element calculations”, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 12, No. 7, pp. 1079-1087, 1994 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0730-725X(94)91240-W
B. Gruber, M. Froeling, T. Leiner, D. W. J. Klomp, “RF coils: A practical guide for nonphysicists”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 590–604, 2018 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26187
J. Mispelter, M. Lupu, A. Briguet, NMR probeheads for biophysical and biomedical experiments, theoretical principles & practical guidelines, 1st edition, Imperial College Press, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/p438
B. J. Dardzinski, S. Li, C. M. Collins, G. D. Williams, M. B. Smith, “A birdcage coil tuned by RF shielding for application at 9.4 T”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 131, No. 1, pp. 32-38, 1998 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1006/jmre.1997.1334
S. M. A. Ghaly, S. A. Sowayan, “A high B1 field homogeneity generation using free element elliptical four-coil system”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 534-540, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2014.534.540
S. M. A. Ghaly, K. A. A. Snaie, S. S. A. Sowayan, “Design and testing of radiofrequency spherical four coils”, Modern Applied Science, Vol. 10, No. 5, pp. 186-193, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5539/mas.v10n5p186
S. M. A. Ghaly, K. A. A. Snaie, O. K. Mohammad, “Spherical and improved Helmholtz coil with high B1 homogeneity for magnetic resonance imaging”, American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 1413-1418, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3844/ajassp.2016.1413.1418
S. M. A. Ghaly, K. A. A. Snaie, A. M. Ali, “Design and modeling of a radiofrequency coil derived from a Helmholtz structure”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 4037-4040, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2683
M. Decorps, P. Blondet, H. Reutenauer, J. P. Albrand, C. Remy, “An inductively coupled, series-tuned NMR probe”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 100-109, 1985 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2364(85)90378-6
J. M. Boesch, A. P. Koretsky, “An in vivo NMR probe circuit for improved sensitivity”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 526-532, 2003 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-2364(83)90333-5
F. Alorifi, S. M. A. Ghaly, M. Shalaby, M. A. Ali, M. O. Khan, “Analysis and detection of a target gas system based on TDLAS & labVIEW”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 4196-4199, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2736
S. M. A. Ghaly, “LabVIEW based implementation of resistive temperature detector linearization techniques”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 4530-4533, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2894
S. M. A. Ghaly, M. O. Khan, S. O. E. Mehdi, M. A. Awad, Μ. A. Ali, K. A. A. Snaie, “Implementation of a broad range smart temperature measurement system using auto-selected multi-sensor core in labVIEW environment”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 9, No. 4, pp. 4511-4515, 2019 DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2896
D. M. Ginsberg, M. J. Melchner, “Optimum geometry of saddle shaped coils for generating a uniform magnetic field”, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 41, No. 1, pp. 122-123, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.1684235
H. Fujita, T. Zheng, X. Yang, M. J. Finnerty, S. Handa, “RF surface receive array coils: The art of an LC circuit”, Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 12–25, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmri.24159
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 1258
PDF Downloads: 520
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.