Assessment of Air Pollution by PM10 and PM2.5 in Nawabshah City, Sindh, Pakistan

  • A. A. Siyal Department of Energy & Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Pakistan
  • S. R. Samo Department of Energy & Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Pakistan
  • Z. A. Siyal Department of Energy & Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Pakistan
  • K. C. Mukwana Department of Energy and Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan
  • S. A. Jiskani Department of Energy & Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Pakistan
  • A. Mengal Department of Mechanical Engineering, Balochistan University of Engineering and Technology, Pakistan
Keywords: particulate matter, pollution, environmental deterioration, human health, strict measures


Increased traffic density due to urbanization is a major cause of air quality deterioration. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) constitutes one of the most challenging issues in environmental research. This study was designed to assess PM10 and PM2.5 pollution at ten main locations in Nawabshah. Analysis of PM10 and PM2.5 pollution was carried randomly at different selected locations of the city. The highest concentration of PM10 was found at Mohini bazar (MB) and the highest concentration for PM2.5 was found at New Naka (NN). The mean concentration of PM10 was 78.3% higher than world health organization (WHO) standards and 35% than Pakistan’s National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS). The mean concentration of PM2.5 was 47.3% and 26.3% higher respectively. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 on day-2 and day-10 were found lower than those set by NEQS, while mean concentrations of PM10 on all days exceeded the WHO and NEQS standards indicating that the city was heavily polluted more with PM10 than with PM2.5. Re-suspension of dust particles due to traffic flow, open burning of unmanaged solid waste on the sides of the road and in the street, and improper handling of construction and demolition waste were identified as the main sources for PM pollution in the city. Exposure to higher levels of PM10 and PM2.5 can cause health problems. High levels of PM10 and PM2.5 are a call for the implementation of strict measures to control PM pollution at Nawabshah in order to protect public health and the environment.


Download data is not yet available.


H. Khreis, K. M. Warsow, E. Verlinghieri, A. Guzman, L. Pellecuer, A. Ferreira, I. Jones, E. Heinen, D. Rojas-Rueda, N. Mueller, P. Schepers, K. Lucas, M. Nieuwenhuijsen, “The health impacts of traffic-related exposures in urban areas: Understanding real effects, underlying driving forces and co-producing future directions”, Journal of Transport & Health, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 249-267, 2016

M. Santibanez-Andrade, E. M. Quezada-Maldonado, A. Osornio-Vargas, Y. Sanchez-Perez, C. M. Garcia-Cuellar, “Air pollution and genomic instability: The role of particulate matter in lung carcinogenesis”, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 229, pp. 412-422, 2017

WHO, Health Effects of Particulate Matter: Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia, World Health Organization, 2013

B. Srimuruganandam, S. M. Shiva Nagendra, “Source characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 mass using a chemical mass balance model at urban roadside”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 433, pp. 8-19, 2012

R. M. Harrison, J. Yin, “Particulate matter in the atmosphere: Which particle properties are important for its effects on health?”, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 249, pp. 85-101, 2000

R. Esworthy, Air Quality: EPA’s 2013 Changes to the Particulate Matter ( PM ) Standard, Congressional Research Service, 2013

E. Chalvatzaki, I. Kopanakis, M. Kontaksakis, T. Glytsos, N. Kalogerakis, M. Lazaridis, “Measurements of particulate matter concentrations at a landfill site (Crete, Greece)”, Waste Management, Vol. 30, No. 11, pp. 2058-2064, 2010

K. H. Kim, E. Kabir, S. Kabir, “A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter”, Environment International, Vol. 74, pp. 136-143, 2015

S. Hasheminassab, N. Daher, J. J. Schauer, C. Sioutas, “Source apportionment and organic compound characterization of ambient ultrafine particulate matter (PM) in the Los Angeles Basin”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 79, pp. 529-539, 2013

M. Chandan, M. D. Geller, P. Shah, C. Sioutas, P. A. Solomon, “Development and Evaluation of a Continuous Coarse (PM10–PM25) Particle Monitor”, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 51, No. 9, pp. 1309-1317, 2001

D. D. Cohen, E. Stelcer, D. Garton, “Trace Elements in Street and House Dust: Source and Speciation”, Nuclear Instrumental Methods in Physics Research B, Vol. 190, pp. 466-470, 2002

S. Police, S. K. Sahu, G. G. Pandit, “Chemical characterization of atmospheric particulate matter and their source apportionment at an emerging industrial coastal city, Visakhapatnam, India”, Atmospheric Pollution Research, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 725-733, 2016

T. M. C. M. de Kok, H. A. L. Driece, J. G. F. Hogervorst, J. J. Briede, “Toxicological assessment of ambient and traffic-related particulate matter: A review of recent studies”, Mutation Research/Reviews in Mutation Research, Vol. 613, No. 2-3, pp. 103-122, 2006

Q. Di, L. Dai, Y. Wang, A. Zanobetti, C. Choirat, J. D. Schwartz, F. Dominici, “Association of Short-term Exposure to Air Pollution With Mortality in Older Adults”, JAMA, Vol. 318, No. 24, pp. 2446-2456, 2017

P. J. Landrigan, “Air pollution and health”, Lancet Public Health, Vol. 2, pp.e4-e5, 2017

K. Vellingiri, K. H. Kim, C. J. Ma, C. H. Kang, J. H. Lee, I. S. Kim, R. J. C. Brown, “Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea”, Chemosphere, Vol. 119, pp. 812-819, 2015

T. Kanabkaew, P. Nookongbut, P. Soodjai, “Preliminary assessment of particulate matter air quality associated with traffic emissions in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand”, Procedia Engineering, Vol. 53, pp. 179-184, 2013

A. P. Sharma, K. H. Kim, J. W. Ahn, Z. H. Shon, J. R. Sohn, J. H. Lee, C. J. Ma, R. J. C. Brown, “Ambient particulate matter (PM10) concentrations in major urban areas of Korea during 1996–2010”, Atmospheric Pollution Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 161-169, 2014

J. Antonel, Z. Chowdhury, “Measuring ambient particulate matter in three cities in Cameroon, Africa”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 95, pp. 344-354, 2014

C. A. Pope III, D. W. Dockery, “Health effects of fine particulate air pollution: Lines that connect”, Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 709-742, 2006

WHO, Global Health Risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks, World Health Organization, 2009

R. Guaita, M. Pichiule, C. Linares, J. Diaz, “Short-term impact of particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory mortality in Madrid”, International Journal of Environmental Health Research, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 260-274, 2011

J. I. Halonen, T. Lanki, T. Yli-Tuomi, P. Tiittanen, M. Kulmala, J. Pekkanen, “Particulate air pollution and acute cardiorespiratory hospital admissions and mortality among the elderly”, Epidemiology, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 143-153, 2009

L. Perez, A. Tobias, X. Querol, J. Pey, A. Alastuey, J. Diaz, J. Sunyer, “Saharan dust, particulate matter and cause-specific mortality: A case-crossover study in Barcelona (Spain)”, Environment International, Vol. 48, pp. 150-155, 2012

E. Samoli, R. Peng, T. Ramsay, M. Pipikou, G. Touloumi, F. Dominici, R. Burnett, A. Cohen, D. Krewski, J. Samet, K. Katsouyanni, “Acute effects of ambient particulate matter on mortality in Europe and North America: Results from the APHENA study”, Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 116, No. 11, pp. 1480-1486, 2008

E. Padoan, M. Malandrino, A. Giacomino, M. M. Grosa, F. Lollobrigida, S. Martini, O. Abollino, “Spatial distribution and potential sources of trace elements in PM10 monitored in urban and rural sites of Piedmont Region”, Chemosphere, Vol. 145, pp. 495-507, 2016

S. Qin, F. Liu, J. Wang, B. Sun, “Analysis and forecasting of the particulate matter (PM) concentration levels over four major cities of China using hybrid models”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 98, pp. 665-675, 2014

M. Woody, B. Haeng Baek, Z. Adelman, M. Omary, Y. Fat Lam, J. J. West, S. Arunachalam, “An assessment of Aviation’s contribution to current and future fine particulate matter in the United States”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, pp. 3424-3433, 2012

C. Borrego, J. Valente, A. Carvalho, E. Sa, M. Lopes, A. I. Miranda “Contribution of residential wood combustion to PM10 levels in Portugal”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 44, pp. 642-651, 2010

L. W. Stanek, J. D. Sacks, S. J. Dutton, J. J. B. Dubois, “Attributing health effects to apportioned components and sources of particulate matter: An evaluation of collective results”, Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, pp. 5655-5663, 2011

WHO, WHO Air Quality Guidelines for Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulfur Dioxide. Global Update 2005. Summary of Risk Assessment, World Health Organization 2006


Abstract Views: 342
PDF Downloads: 154

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>