Towards Verbalizing SPARQL Queries in Arabic
With the wide spread of Open Linked Data and Semantic Web technologies, a larger amount of data has been published on the Web in the RDF and OWL formats. This data can be queried using SPARQL, the Semantic Web Query Language. SPARQL cannot be understood by ordinary users and is not directly accessible to humans, and thus they will not be able to check whether the retrieved answers truly correspond to the intended information need. Driven by this challenge, natural language generation from SPARQL data has recently attracted a considerable attention. However, most existing solutions to verbalize SPARQL in natural language focused on English and Latin-based languages. Little effort has been made on the Arabic language which has different characteristics and morphology. This work aims to particularly help Arab users to perceive SPARQL queries on the Semantic Web by translating SPARQL to Arabic. It proposes an approach that gets a SPARQL query as an input and generates a query expressed in Arabic as an output. The translation process combines both morpho-syntactic analysis and language dependencies to generate a legible and understandable Arabic query. The approach was preliminary assessed with a sample query set, and results indicated that 75% of the queries were correctly translated into Arabic.
Keywords:SPARQL, Natural Language Processing, Ontology, Morpho-syntactic features, Arabic
I. Al Agha, “Using Linguistic Analysis to Translate Arabic Natural Language Queries to SPARQL”, International Journal of Web & Semantic Technology, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 25-39, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5121/ijwest.2015.6303
S. Shekarpour, A. -C. Ngonga Ngomo, S. Auer, “Question answering on interlinked data”, 22nd International Conference on World Wide Web, pp. 1145-1156, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, May 13 - 17, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2488388.2488488
J. Perez, M. Arenas, C. Gutierrez, “Semantics and complexity of SPARQL”, ACM Transactions on Database Systems, Vol. 34, No. 3, Article No. 16, pp. 1-45, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1567274.1567278
H. Piccinini, M, A. Casanova, A. L. Furtado, B. P. Nunes, “Verbalization of rdf triples with applications”, ISWC-Outrageous Ideas track, 2011
M. Beseiso, A. R. Ahmad, R. Ismail, “A Survey of Arabic language Support in Semantic web”, International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 35-40, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5120/1348-1818
A. -C. Ngonga, L. Buhmann, C. Unger, J. Lehmann, D. Gerber, “Sorry, i don't speak SPARQL: translating SPARQL queries into natural language”, 22nd international conference on World Wide Web. International World Wide Web Conferences Steering Committee: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 977-988, 2013
B. Ell, D. Vrandečić, E. Simperl, “Spartiqulation: Verbalizing sparql queries”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 7540, pp. 117-131 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-46641-4_9
E. Kaufmann, A. Bernstein, “How useful are natural language interfaces to the semantic web for casual end-users?”, 6th International Semantic Web Conference, 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2007 + ASWC 2007, Busan, Korea, pp. 281-294, November 11-15, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0_21
E. Kaufmann, A. Bernstein, R. Zumstein, “Querix: A natural language interface to query ontologies based on clarification dialogs”, 5th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2006), pp. 980-981, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/11926078_78
C. Pradel, O. Haemmerlé, N. Hernandez, “Natural language query interpretation into SPARQL using patterns”, 4th International Workshop on Consuming Linked Data-COLD 2013, pp. 1-12, 2013
S. Ferré, “SQUALL: The expressiveness of SPARQL 1.1 made available as a controlled natural language”, Data & Knowledge Engineering.Vol. 94, No. 1, pp. 163-188, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.datak.2014.07.010
G. Aguado de Cea, A. Bañón, J. Bateman, M. S. Bernardos, M. Fernández-López, A. Gómez-Pérez, E. Nieto, A. Olalla, R. Plaza, A. Sánchez, “ONTOGENERATION: Reusing domain and linguistic ontologies for Spanish text generation”, Workshop on Applications of Ontologies and Problem-Solving Methods European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI’98), Brighton, United Kingdom, August 1998
D. Hewlett, A. Kalyanpur, V. Kolovski, C. Halaschek-Wiener, “Effective NL Paraphrasing of Ontologies on the Semantic Web”, End User Semantic Web Interaction Workshop, CEUR-WS Proceedings, Vol. 172, 2011
N. T. Dong, L. B. Holder, “Natural Language Generation from Graphs”, International Journal of Semantic Computing.Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 335-384, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793351X14500068
G. Wilcock, “Talking owls: Towards an ontology verbalizer”, Human Language Technology for the Semantic Web and Web Services, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 109-112, 2003
A. Third, S. Williams, R. Power, “OWL to English: a tool for generating organised easily-navigated hypertexts from ontologies”, 10th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2011), 23 - 27 Oct 2011, Bonn, Germany.
K. Kaljurand, N. E. Fuchs, “Verbalizing OWL in Attempto Controlled English”, OWL: Experiences and Directions Workshop (OWLED), Third International Workshop, Austria, June 6-7, 2007
G. Koutrika, A. Simitsis, Y. E. Ioannidis, “Explaining structured queries in natural language”, IEEE 26th International Conference on Data Engineering, pp. 333-344, USA, March 1-6, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICDE.2010.5447824
N. Bouayad-Agha, G. Casamayor, L. Wanner, “Natural language generation in the context of the semantic web”, Semantic Web Journal (under review)
D. Gerber, A.-C. Ngonga Ngomo, “Extracting multilingual natural-language patterns for rdf predicates”, Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, pp. 87-96, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-33876-2_10
B. Ell, A. Harth, “A language-independent method for the extraction of RDF verbalization templates”, 8th International Natural Language Generation Conference, pp. 26, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3115/v1/W14-4405
W. Zheng, L. Zou, X. Lian, J. X. Yu, S. Song, D. Zhao, “How to Build Templates for RDF Question/Answering: An Uncertain Graph Similarity Join Approach”, 2015 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, pp. 1809-1824, 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/2723372.2747648
N. E. Fuchs, “First-order reasoning for attempto controlled english”, Controlled Natural Language, pp. 73-94, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31175-8_5
J. Danaparamita, W. Gatterbauer, “QueryViz: helping users understand SQL queries and their patterns”, 14th International Conference on Extending Database Technology, pp. 558-561, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/1951365.1951440
A. Kokkalis, P. Vagenas, A. Zervakis, A. Simitsis, G. Koutrika, Y. Ioannidis, “Logos: a system for translating queries into narratives”, 2012 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, USA, pp. 673-676, 2012
L. Al-Safadi, M. Al-Badrani, M. Al-Junidey, “Developing ontology for Arabic blogs retrieval”, International Journal of Computer Applications.Vol. 19, No. 4, pp. 40-45, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5120/2346-3066
F. Z. Belkredim, F. Meziane, “DEAR-ONTO: a derivational Arabic ontology based on verbs”, International Journal of Computer Processing of Languages, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 279-291, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1142/S1793840608001901
N. Soudani, I. Bounhas, B. El Ayeb, Y. Slimani, “Toward an Arabic Ontology for Arabic Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Normalized Dictionaries”, On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2014 Workshops, pp. 655-658, Confederated International Workshops: OTM Academy, OTM Industry Case Studies Program, C&TC, EI2N, INBAST, ISDE, META4eS, MSC and OnToContent 2014, Amantea, Italy, October 27-31, 2014
A. Y. Mahgoub, M. A. Rashwan, H. Raafat , M. A. Zahran, M. B. Fayek, “Semantic Query Expansion for Arabic Information Retrieval”, Arabic Natural Language Processing Workshop, Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP), Doha, Qatar, ACL, 2014 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3115/v1/W14-3611
I. Al Agha, A. Abu-Taha, “AR2SPARQL: An Arabic Natural Language Interface for the Semantic Web”, International Journal of Computer Applications.Vol. 125, No. 6, pp. 2015 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5120/ijca2015905928
I. Al Agha. “Diseases Ontology”, available at: https://code.google.com/p/ar2sparql/
Stanford Types Dependencies Manual, available at: http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/dependencies_manual.pdf.
Mooney Natural Language Learning Data, available at: https://files.ifi.uzh.ch/ddis/oldweb/ddis/research/talking-to-the-semantic-web/owl-test-data/
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 480
PDF Downloads: 218
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.