Insulating Materials at Very Low Temperatures: A Short Review

  • P. Malelis Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
  • M. Danikas Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Greece
Keywords: superconductors, high temperature superconductors (HTS), cryogenic insulation, liquid nitrogen, partial discharges, streamers, aging of materials

Abstract

In this paper, a short review is given on insulating materials at very low temperatures. Various insulating materials are investigated in terms of phenomena such as partial discharges. Some of the factors affecting the behavior of the insulating materials at very low temperatures, such as the quality of electrode surface, the stressed insulation volume and the existing bubbles, are also reported and commented upon. Proposals for future research are also discussed.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

R. D. B. Ouboter, “Heike kammerlingh onnes’s discovery of superconductivity”, Scientific American, Vol. 276, No. 3, pp. 98-103, 1997

J. G. Bednorz, K. A. Muller, “Possible high Tc superconductivity in the Ba-La-Cu-O system”, Zeitschrift Fuer Physik B–Condensed Matter, Vol. 64, No. 2, pp. 189-193, 1986

Working Group D1.38, Common characteristics and emerging test techniques for high temperature superconducting power equipment, Cigre, 2015

F. Krahenbuhl, B. Bernstein, M. Danikas, J. Densley, K. Kadotani, M. Kahle, M. Kosaki, H. Mitsui, M. Nagao, J. Smit, T. Tanaka, “Properties of electrical insulating materials at cryogenic temperatures: A literature review”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 10-22, 1994

M. Kosaki, “Research and development of electrical insulation of superconducting cables by extruded polymers”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 12, No. 5, pp. 17-24, 1996

A. Bulinski, J. Densley, “High voltage insulation for power cables utilizing high temperature superconductivity”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 14-22, 1999

M. Yagi, J. Liu, S. Mukoyama, T. Mitsuhashi, J. Teng, N. Hayakawa, X. Wang, A. Ishiyama, N. Amemiya, T. Hasegawa, T. Saitoh, O. Maruyama, T. Ohkuma, “Experimental results of 275-kV 3-kA rebco HTS power cable”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 25, No. 3, Article ID 5401405, 2015

N. Hayakawa, “Introduction of Cigre WG D1.64 and topics on insulation issues on superconducting cables and fault current limiters”, 12th IEEE International Conference on the Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, Xi'an, China, May 20-24, 2018

W. Weihan, H. Fengnian, “Mechanical and dielectric assessment of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene insulation for cryogenic applications”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 504-512, 1992

W. Gao, D. Ding, Q. Yin, “Influences of aggregative state on electrical trees growth characteristics under cryogenic condition”, 9th International Conference on the Properties and Applications of Dielectric Materials, Harbin, China, July 19-23, 2009

G. Papadopoulos, Thermal analysis of superconducting cables with the use of finite volume and finite element methods, BSc Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,, 2017 (in Greek)

M. Nassi, “HTS prototype for power transmission cables: Recent results and future programs”, Superconductor Science and Technology,Vol. 13, No. 5, pp. 460-463, 1999

P. Katsiroubas, Theory of superconductivity and applications of superconducting materials in power applications, BSc Thesis, National Technical University of Athens, 2014 (in Greek)

M. Nassi, High temperature superconducting (HTS) cable systems, CIGRE, 2003

C. Farmakas, “Power applications with superconducting materials of high Temperature”, BSc Thesis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2003 (in Greek)

T. J. Gallagher, A. J. Pearmain, High voltage measurement, testing and design, John Wiley and Sons, 1984

J. Gerhold, “Properties of cryogenic insulants”, Cryogenics, Vol. 38, No. 11, pp. 1063-1081, 1998

M. S. Naidu, V. Kamaraju, High voltage engineering, McGraw-Hill, 1995

A. Kelen, M. G. Danikas, “Evidence and presumption in PD diagnostics”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 780-795, 1995

E. Gulski, “Digital analysis of partial discharges”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 822-837, 1995

H. Okubo, M. Noe, J. Cho, A. Malozemoff, L. Martini, S. Nagaya, F. Schmidt, C. Sumereder, P. Tixador, B. Wacker, A. Wolsky, “Status of development and field test experience with high-temperature supeconducting power equipment”, Electra, Vol. 250, pp. 61-63, 2010

H. Okubo, N. Hayakawa, “A novel technique for partial discharge and breakdown investigation based on current pulse waveform analysis”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 736-744, 2005

I. J. Seo, Y. J. Lee, J. K. Seong, W. J. Shin, B. W. Lee, J. Y. Koo, “Identification and insulation defects in cryogenic dielectric materials for the HTS power applications”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 22, No. 3, Article ID 7701304, 2012

M. Kosaki, M. Nagao, N. Shimizu, Y. Mizuno, “Solid insulation and its deterioration”, Cryogenics, Vol. 38, No. 11, pp. 1095-1104, 1998

J. I. Heo, J. Hong, S. Nam, S. Choi, H. Kang, “Design of current leads for a high voltage superconducting apparatus”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 23, No. 3, Article ID 4800805, 2013

N. Hayakawa, H. Kojima, M. Hanai, H. Okubo, “Recent progress in electrical insulation techniques for HTS power apparatus”, Physics Procedia, Vol. 36, pp. 1305-1308, 2012

J. Gerhold, “Potential of cryogenic liquids for future power equipment insulation in the medium high voltage range”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 878-890, 2002

J. Gerhold, “Cryogenic liquids-A prospective insulation basis for future power equipment”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 68-75, 2002

Μ. Danikas, Factors affecting the breakdown strength of transformer oil, MSc Thesis, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, 1982

M. G. Danikas, “Breakdown of transformer oil”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 27-34, 1990

N. Hayakawa, S. Nishimachi, T. Mastuoka, H. Kojima, M. Hanai, H. Okubo, “Breakdown characteristics and size effect in sub-cooled liquid nitrogen”, 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids, Bled, Slovenia, June 29-July 3, 2014

N. Hayakawa, H. Sakakibara, H. Goshima, M. Hikita, H. Okubo, “Breakdown mechanism of liquid nitrogen viewed from area and volume effects”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 127-134, 1997

W. R. Bell, “Influence of size on the dielectric strength of transformer oil”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 281-292, 1977

B. Salvage, “The dielectric breakdown of some simple organic liquids”, Proceedings of the IEE-Part IV: Institution Monographs, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp. 15-22, 1951

I. Sauers, R. James, A. Ellis, E. Tuncer, G. Polizos, M. Pace, “Effect of bubbles on liquid nitrogen in plane-plane electrode geometry from 100-250 kPa”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 1892-1895, 2011

M. Blaz, M. Kurrat, “Discharge mechanisms in liquid nitrogen with thermally induced gas bubbles”, Journal of Physics: Conference Series Vol. 507, Article ID 032006, 2014

T. P. Hong, P. E. Frayssines, O. Lesaint, F. Aitken, F. Devaux, “Influence of vapor bubbles initiated by steady heating on the breakdown of liquid nitrogen”, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Albuquerque, USA, October 19-22, 2003

D. J. Swaffield, P. L. Lewin, G. Chen, S. G. Swingler, “Partial discharge characterization of streamers in liquid nitrogen under applied AC voltages”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 635-646, 2008

S. Nishimachi, N. Hayakawa, H. Kojima, M. Hanai, H. Okubo, “Pressure and temperature dependence of breakdown characteristics of sub-cooled liquid nitrogen”, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Montreal, Canada, October 14-17, 2012

S. Fink, R. Mueller, M. Noe, V. Zwecker, H. R. Kim, “Withstand alternating voltage of liquid nitrogen in the presence of gas bubbles”, 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids, Bled, Slovenia, June 29-July 3, 2014

D. S. Kwag, H. G. Cheon, J. H. Choi, H. J. Kim, J. W. Cho, M. S. Yun, S. H. Kim, “The electrical insulation characteristics for a HTS cable termination”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 1618-1621, 2006

D. R. James, I. Sauers, A. R. Ellis, E. Tuncer, K. Tekletsadik, D. W. Hazelton, “Breakdown and partial discharge measurements of some commonly used dielectric materials in liquid nitrogen for HTS applications”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 1513-1516, 2007

S. Li, J. Sheng, Y. Chen, Z. Lin, Y. Yin, L. Yao, Z. Hong, “Bubble behavior and its influence on insulation properties of liquid nitrogen for superconducting power apparatus”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 23, No. 3, Article ID 5000205, 2013

P. E. Frayssines, O. Lesaint, N. Bonifaci, A. Denat, S. Lelaidier, F. Devaux, “Prebreakdown phenomena at high voltage in liquid nitrogen and comparison with mineral oil”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 899-909, 2002

P. E. Frayssines, N. Bonifaci, A. Denat, O. Lesaint, “Steamers in liquid nitrogen: Characteristics and spectroscopic determination of gaseous filament temperature and electron density”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 369-377, 2002

J. C. Devins, “The physics of partial discharges in solid dielectrics”, Conference on Electrical Insulation & Dielectric Phenomena-Annual Report, Claymont, USA, October 21-25, 1984

A. Eigner, K. Rethmeier, “An overview on the current status of partial discharge measurements on AC high voltage cable accessories”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 48-55, 2016

N. Hayakawa, M. Nagino, H. Kojima, M. Goto, T. Takahashi, K. Yasuda, H. Okubo, “Dielectric characteristics of HTS cables based on partial discharge measurement”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 1802-1805, 2005

H. Okubo, M. Hazeyama, N. Hayakawa, S. Honjo, T. Masuda, “V-t characteristics of partial discharge inception in liquid nitrogen/ PPLP/sup /spl reg// composite insulation system for HTS cable”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 945-951, 2002

A. J. Pearmain, M. G. Danikas, “A study of the behavior of a uniaxially oriented polyethylene tape/oil insulating system subjected to electrical and thermal stresses”, IEEE Transactions on Electrical Insulation, Vol. 22, No. 4, pp. 373-382, 1987

M. G. Danikas, “Study of samples of a composite insulating system under electrical and thermal stresses”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 18-23, 1990

E. Tuncer, G. Polizos, I. Sauers, D. R. James, A. R. Ellis, J. M. Messman, T. Aytug, “Polyamide 66 as a cryogenic dielectric”, Cryogenics, Vol. 49, No. 9, pp. 463-468, 2009

I. Sauers, E. Tuncer, G. Polizos, D. R. James, A. R. Ellis, M. O. Pace, “Very low frequency breakdown strengths of electrical insulation materials at cryogenic temperatures”, IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Virginia Beach, USA, October 18-21, 2009

A. Cavallini, G. C. Montanari, “Effect of supply voltage frequency on testing of insulation system”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 111-121, 2006

C. Forssen, H. Edin, “Partial discharges in a cavity at variable applied frequency part 2: Measurements and modeling”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 15, No. 6, pp. 1610-1616, 2008

A. C. Muller, “Properties of plastic tapes for cryogenic power cable insulation”, in: Nonmetallic Materials and Composites at Low Temperatures, Plenum Press, 1979

E. B. Forsyth, A. J. McNemey, A. C. Muller, “Dielectric design xconsiderations for a flexible superconducting power transmission cable”, Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, Vol. 22, pp. 296-305, 1977

G. H. Morgan, A. C. Muller, “Bending behavior of lapped plastic EHV cables”, IEEE International Conference on Electrical Insulation, Boston, USA, June 9-11, 1980

P. G. Priaroggia, E. Occhini, N. Palmieri, “A brief review of the theory of paper lapping of a single core high voltage cable”, Proceedings of IEE Part C: Monographs, Vol. 108, No. 13, pp. 25-34, 1961

E. B. Forsyth, “The dielectric insulation of superconducting power cables”, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 31-40, 1991

V. Selvamanickam, J. Dackow, “Progress in superpower’s 2G HTS wire development and manufacturing”, DOE Advanced Cables & Conductors Peer Review, Alexandria, USA, June 29–July 1, 2010

M. Elsherif, P. Taylor, S. Blake, “Investigating the potential impact of superconducting distribution networks”, 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Stockholm, Sweden, June 10-13, 2013

W. Yuan, S. Venuturumilli, Z. Zhang, Y. Mavroconstanti, M. Zhang, “Economic feasibility study of using high-temperature superconducting cables in UK’s electrical distribution networks”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 28, No. 4, Article ID 5401505, 2018

P. McGuckin, G. Burt, “Overview and assessment of superconducting technologies for power grid applications”, 53rd International Universities Power Engineering Conference, Glasgow, UK, September 4-7, 2018

E. Tuncer, I. Sauers, D. R. James, A. R. Ellis, “Electrical insulation characteristics of glass fiber reinforced resins”, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 2359-2362, 2009

E. Gockenbach, W. Hauschild, “The selection of the frequency range for high-voltage on-site testing of extruded insulation cable systems”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 11-16, 2000

S. Morsalin, B. T. Phung, M. G. Danikas, “Influence of cavity geometry on partial discharge measurement at very low frequency”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference, Calgary, Canada, June 16-19, 2019

S. Morsalin, B. T. Phung, M. G. Danikas, D. Mawad, “Diagnostic challenges in dielectric loss assessment and interpretation: A review”, IET Science, Measurement & Technology, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 767-782, 2019

H. A. Illias, M. A. Tunio, A. H. A. Bakar, H. Mokhlis, G. Chen, “Partial discharge phenomena within an artificial void in cable insulation geometry: Experimental validation and simulation”, IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 451-459, 2016

H. Illias, G. Altamimi, N. Mokhtar, H. Arof, “Classification of multiple partial discharge sources in dielectric insulation material using Cepstrum analysis–Artificial neural netweork”, IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 357-364, 2017

C. W. Reed, “Polymer nanodielectrics–Basic concepts”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 12-15, 2013

E. David, M. Frechette, “Polymer nanocomposites–Major conclusions and acievements reached so far”, IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp. 29-36, 2013

M. G. Danikas, A. Bairaktari, R. Sarathi, A. B. B. A. Chani, “A review of two nanocomposite insulating materials models: Lewis’ contribution in the development of the models, their differences, their similarities and future challenges”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp. 636-643, 2014

G. Melissinos, M. G. Danikas, “On polymer nanocomposites: Electrical treeing, breakdown models and related simulations”, Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 2627-2632, 2018

E. Tuncer, I. Sauers, “Industrial applications perspective of nanodielectrics”, in: Dielectric Polymer Nanocomposites, Springer, 2010

N. Soleimani, S. M. Khalili, R. E. Farsani, Z. Hedayatnasab, “Mechanical properties of nanoclay reinforced polypropylene composites at cryogenic temperature”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 31, No. 14, pp. 967-976, 2012

N. Manoharan, V. Selvakumar, “Cryogenic mechanical properties of PP/MMT polymer nanocomposites”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 7, No. S7, pp. 16-23, 2014

S. Fu, Z. Sun, P. Huang, Y. Li, N. Hu, “Some basic aspects of polymer nanocomposites: A critical review”, Nano Materials Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 2-30, 2019

M. O. Pace, I. Sauers, D. R. James, A. R. Ellis, “Aging of lapped tape insulated model cables at cryogenic temperature”, Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Cancun, Mexico, October 20-24, 2002

Section
Articles

Metrics

Abstract Views: 214
PDF Downloads: 99

Metrics Information
Bookmark and Share