Effect of Soorh Metakaolin on Concrete Compressive Strength and Durability
Concrete durability is a key aspect for forecasting the expected life time of concrete structures. In this paper, the effect of compressive strength and durability of concrete containing metakaolin developed from a local natural material (Soorh of Thatta Distict of Sindh, Pakistan) is investigated. Soorh is calcined by an electric furnace at 8000C for 2 hours to produce metakaolin. One mix of ordinary concrete and five mixes of metakaolin concrete were prepared, where cement is replaced by developed metakaolin from 5% to 25% by weight, with 5% increment step. The concrete durability was tested for water penetration, carbonation depth and corrosion resistance. The obtained outcomes demonstrated that, 15% replacement level of local developed metakaolin presents considerable improvements in concrete properties. Moreover, a considerable linear relationship was established between compressive strength and concrete durability indicators like water penetration, carbonation depth and corrosion resistance.
Keywords:Compressive strength, Durability, Metakaolin, Soorh, Permeability, Carbonation depth, Corrosion
H. M. Owaid, R. B. Hamid, M. R. Taha, “A Review of Sustainable Supplementary Cementitious Materials as an Alternative to All-Portland Cement Mortar and Concrete”, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 9, pp. 287-303, 2012
J. A. Kostuch, G. V. Walters, T. R. Jones, “High performance concretes incorporating metakaolin: a review”, International conference, Infrastructure, research, new applications Vol. 2, pp. 1799-1812, 1993
B. B. Sabir, S. Wild, J. M. Khatib, “On the workability and strength development of metakaolin concrete”, Concrete for environmental enhancement and protection, E&FN Spon, pp. 651–656, 1996
J. Ambroise, S. Maximilien, J. Pera, “Properties of metakaolin blended cements”, Advance Cement Based Material, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 161–168, 1994 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/1065-7355(94)90007-8
A. A. Ramezanianpour, H. Bahrami Jovein, “Influence of metakaolin as supplementary cementing material on strength and durability of concretes”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 30, pp. 470–479, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.050
N. Saikia, S. Kato, T. Kojima, “Thermo gravimetric investigation on the chloride binding behavior of MK-lime paste”, Thermochimca Acta, Vol. 444, No. 1, pp.16–25, 2006 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tca.2006.02.012
M. Morsy, “Effect of temperature on hydration kinetics and stability of hydration phases of metakaolin–lime sludge–silica fume system”, Ceramics- Silikaty, Vol. 49, No.4 , pp. 237–241, 2005
L. Tie-song, J. De-chang, H. Pei-gang, W. Mei-rong, “Thermal– mechanical properties of short carbon fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites subjected to thermal load”, Journal of Central South University Technology, Vol. 16, pp, 881–886, 2009 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-009-0146-8
D. D. Vu, P. Stroeven, V. B. Bui, “Strength and durability aspects of calcined kaolin blended Portland cement mortar and concrete”, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 471–478, 2001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0958-9465(00)00091-3
X. Zhou, D. Su, M. Zhong, “Preparation and characterization of metakaolin–phosphate cement”, Journal of Chongqing University, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 28–34, 2008
Y. M. Liew, H. Kamarudin, A. M. M. Al Bakri, M. Luqman, I. Khairul Nizar, C. M. Ruzaidi, C. Y. Heah, “Processing and characterization of calcined kaolin cement powder”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 30, pp. 794–802, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.12.079
P. He, D. Jia, M. Wang, Y. Zhou, “Improvement of high temperature mechanical properties of heat treated Cf/geopolymer composites by Sol- SiO2 impregnation” Journal of European Ceramic Society, Vol. 30, No. 15, pp. 3053–3061, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2010.07.031
J. Wang, X. Wu, J. Wang, C. Liu, Y. Lai, Z. Hong, J. Zheng, “Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of alkali-activated slag–fly ash–metakaolin cementitious materials”, Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 155, pp.186–191, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2012.01.016
H. Guneyisi, M. Gesogglu, S. Karaoglu, K. Mermerdas, “Strength, permeability and shrinkage cracking of silica fume and metakaolin concretes”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 34, pp. 120–130, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.02.017
H. Kim, S. Lee, H. Moon, “Strength properties and durability aspects of high strength concrete using Korean metakaolin”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 1229–1237, 2007 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.05.007
A. K. Parande, B. R. Babu, M. Aswin Karthik, D.Kumaar, N. Palaniswamy, “Study on strength and corrosion performance for steel embedded in metakaolin blended concrete/mortar”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 127–134, 2008 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.10.003
I. Janotka, F. Puertas, M. Palacios, M. Kuliffayova, C. Varga, “Metakaolin sand blended-cement pastes: Rheology, hydration process and mechanical properties”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 24, No. 5, pp.791-802, 2010 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.10.028
A. Saand, M. A. Keerio, D. K. Bangwar, M. K. Samo, “Development of metakaolin as a pozzolanic material from local natural material Soorh”, Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 4937-4944, 2016 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-016-2216-1
A. Tironi, M. A. Trezza, A. N. Scian, E. F. Irassar, “Assessment of pozzolanic activity of different calcined clays”, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 37, pp. 319–327, 2013 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2013.01.002
A. A. Ramezanianpour, A. Pilvar, M. Mahdikhani, F. Moodi, “Practical evaluation of relationship between concrete resistivity, water penetration, rapid chloride penetration and compressive strength”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 2472–2479, 2011 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.11.069
P. Duan, Z. Shui, W. Chen, C. Shen, “Influence of metakaolin on pore structure-related properties and thermodynamic stability of hydrate phases of concrete in seawater environment”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 36, pp. 947–953, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.06.073
R. Madandoust, S. Yasin Mousavi, “Fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete containing metakaolin”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 35, pp. 752–760, 2012 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2012.04.109
L. Weng, K. Sagoe-Crentsil, T. Brown, S. Song, “Effect of aluminates on the formations of geopolymers”, Materials Science and Engineering: B, Vol.117, No. 2, pp.163–168, 2005 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mseb.2004.11.008
How to Cite
MetricsAbstract Views: 816
PDF Downloads: 331
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.