A Comparative Study of Computer-Aided Engineering Techniques for Robot Arm Applications
As systems become increasingly complex, their simulation techniques have to be more accurate and enhanced. Despite the wide use of robotic arms in industries, they still encompass a wide number of complexities. The control of a flexible robot arm driven by a Brushless DC Motor (BDCM) for tracking problems is a great challenge, not only for its complex algorithms but also for its verification process. Robotic systems are designed heterogeneously by combining continuous and event discrete models. Therefore, computer-aided engineering tools have to be enhanced in order to support the verification of the control algorithms. Ensuring definite and rapid simulations is a challenging task for robotic application systems. Although control strategies can be tested using the Matlab/Simulink environment to assess their performance, their verification at a low-level still remains a very difficult task. This paper studies different simulation techniques based on Model In the Loop (MIL), Hardware In the Loop (HIL), and Hardware Software In the Loop (HSIL) on a flexible robot arm driven by BDCM in order to overcome each method's limits, focusing on performance and cost and simulation time reduction. The HSIL achieves the highest accuracy and speed than MIL and HIL and provides reusability and portability of the control unit compared to the other techniques.
S. Li, A. Samin, Y. F. Zheng, and L. Cao, "The effects of radiation-induced demagnetization on the performance of the brushless DC motor in robot servo systems," in 2014 International Symposium on Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering (ISFEE), Nov. 2014, pp. 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ISFEE.2014.7050562
S. S. Patel et al., "Modeling and implementation of intelligent commutation system for BLDC motor in underwater robotic applications," in 2016 IEEE 1st International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES), Jul. 2016, pp. 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICPEICES.2016.7853695
L. Zouari, A. B. Rhouma, and M. Abid, "On the Potentialities of Reduced Structure Inverter Integrated in Robot Application," in Proceedings of the World Congress on Engineering, London, UK, Jul. 2012, vol. II.
Lin Bai, "Electric drive system with BLDC motor," in 2011 International Conference on Electric Information and Control Engineering, Apr. 2011, pp. 359-363. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICEICE.2011.5777507
D. Chowdhury, A. Mitra, S. Mondal, and M. Chattopadhyay, "A New Implementation Scheme in Robotic Vehicle Propulsion Using Brushless DC Motor," in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Communication, Singapore, 2017, pp. 387-394. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-2035-3_39
K. Rajagopal, S. Vaidyanathan, A. Karthikeyan, and P. Duraisamy, "Dynamic analysis and chaos suppression in a fractional order brushless DC motor," Electrical Engineering, vol. 99, no. 2, pp. 721-733, Jun. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00202-016-0444-8
H. Hu, T. Wang, S. Zhao, and C. Wang, "Speed control of brushless direct current motor using a genetic algorithm-optimized fuzzy proportional integral differential controller -, 2019," Advances in Mechanical Engineering, vol. 11, no. 11, Nov. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814019890199
H. Melkote and F. Khorrami, "Nonlinear adaptive control of direct-drive brushless DC motors and applications to robotic manipulators," IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 71-81, Mar. 1999. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/3516.752086
N. Hemati, "Strange attractors in brushless DC motors," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 40-45, Jan. 1994. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/81.260218
C. L. Lin, H. Y. Jan, and N. C. Shieh, "GA-based multiobjective PID control for a linear brushless DC motor," IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 56-65, Mar. 2003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TMECH.2003.809136
S. Ahmed, A. Topalov, N. Dimitrov, and E. Bonev, "Industrial implementation of a fuzzy logic controller for brushless DC motor drives using the PicoMotion control framework," in 2016 IEEE 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems (IS), Sep. 2016, pp. 629-634. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IS.2016.7737493
X. Zhou, X. Chen, M. Lu, and F. Zeng, "Rapid Self-Compensation Method of Commutation Phase Error for Low- Inductance BLDC Motor," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1833-1842, Aug. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2017.2653812
J. Iqbal, "Modern Control Laws for an Articulated Robotic Arm: Modeling and Simulation," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 4057-4061, Apr. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.2598
M. B. Ayed, L. Zouari, and M. Abid, "Software In the Loop Simulation for Robot Manipulators," Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 2017-2021, Oct. 2017. DOI: https://doi.org/10.48084/etasr.1285
C. Obermaier, R. Riebl, C. Facchi, A. Al-Bayatti, and S. Khan, "Limitations of HIL Test Architectures for Car2X Communication Devices and Applications," presented at the CSCS '19: ACM Computer Science in Cars Symposium, Kaiserslautern Germany, Oct. 2019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1145/3359999.3360493
S. M. Shah and M. Irfan, "Embedded hardware/software verification and validation using hardware-in-the-loop simulation," in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies, 2005., Sep. 2005, pp. 494-498.
J. C. V. S. Junior, A. V. Brito, and T. P. Nascimento, "Testing Real-Time Embedded Systems with Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation Using High Level Architecture," in 2015 Brazilian Symposium on Computing Systems Engineering (SBESC), Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, Nov. 2015, pp. 142-147, doi: 10.1109/SBESC.2015.34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SBESC.2015.34
U. R. F. Souza, J. K. Sperb, B. A. de Mello, and F. R. Wagner, "Tangram - virtual integration of heterogeneous IP components in a distributed co-simulation environment," in 16th Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design, 2003. SBCCI 2003. Proceedings., Sep. 2003, pp. 125-130.
T. W. B. Silva et al., "A Distributed Functional Verification Environment for the Design of System-on-Chip in Heterogeneous Architectures," in 2018 31st Symposium on Integrated Circuits and Systems Design (SBCCI), Aug. 2018, pp. 4849-4854. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SBCCI.2018.8533247
A. V. Brito, A. V. Negreiros, C. Roth, O. Sander, and J. Becker, "Development and Evaluation of Distributed Simulation of Embedded Systems Using Ptolemy and HLA," in 2013 IEEE/ACM 17th International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications, Oct. 2013, pp. 189-196. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/DS-RT.2013.28
J. Claudio, V. S. Junior, A. V. Brito, and T. P. Nascimento, "Verification of Embedded System Designs through Hardware-Software Co-Simulation," International Journal of Information and Electronics Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 68-73, 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7763/IJIEE.2015.V5.504
J. Chen, W. Yu, Y. Zhang, and C. Du, "Design and Implementation of Universal Configurable Digital Emulators," in 2019 IEEE 8th Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference (ITAIC), May 2019, pp. 943-947. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ITAIC.2019.8785587
T. W. B. Silva, D. C. Morais, H. G. R. Andrade, A. M. N. Lima, E. U. K. Melcher, and A. V. Brito, "Environment for integration of distributed heterogeneous computing systems," Journal of Internet Services and Applications, vol. 9, no. 1, Jan. 2018, Art. no. 4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13174-017-0072-1
G. Das, M. De, and K. K. Mandal, "Design of Flyback Converter by Using an Ideal Switch and a MOSFET Switch," in 2018 IEEE Electron Devices Kolkata Conference (EDKCON), Nov. 2018, pp. 110-114. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/EDKCON.2018.8770407
M. Mauri, "Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Renewable Distributed Generation Systems," in Renewable Energy, IntechOpen, 2009, p. 133. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5772/7373
S. Lentijo, S. D'Arco, and A. Monti, "Comparing the Dynamic Performances of Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Interfaces," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 1195-1207, Apr. 2010. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/TIE.2009.2027246
G. Enriquez, "Design of a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) Simulation of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (sUAV) for Self Autonomous Mission Capability," in Student Research Symposium (SRS), 2019, [Online]. Available: https://commons.erau.edu/db-srs/2019/poster/19.
C. Graf, J. Maas, T. Schulte, and J. Weise-Emden, "Real-time HIL-simulation of power electronics," in 2008 34th Annual Conference of IEEE Industrial Electronics, Nov. 2008, pp. 2829-2834. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/IECON.2008.4758407
M. B. Ayed, F. Bouchhima, and M. Abid, "A novel verification technique for control units," International Journal of Engineering and Technology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 1990-1999, 2013.
L. Zouari, M. B. Ayed, and M. Abid, "A hardware in the loop simulation for electrically driven robot manipulator," in 2015 IEEE 28th Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE), May 2015, pp. 1495-1501. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/CCECE.2015.7129502
L. Zouari, M. B. Ayed, and M. Abid, "Embedded control of robot arm driven by Brushless DC motor on FPGA," in 2014 Second World Conference on Complex Systems (WCCS), Nov. 2014, pp. 722-727. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICoCS.2014.7060985
L. Zouari, M. B. Ayed, and M. Abid, "Improved performance of a brushless DC motor using hardware in the loop control technique," in 2015 IEEE 12th International Multi-Conference on Systems, Signals Devices (SSD15), Mar. 2015, pp. 1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1109/SSD.2015.7348100
M. B. Ayed, F. Bouchhima, L. Zouari, and M. Abid, "An Accelerated Hardware Software in The Loop Technique for Control Units," International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 10-22, 2014.
M. B. Ayed, F. Bouchhima, and M. Abid, "CODIS+: Co-simulation environment for heterogeneous systems," Journal of Control Engineering and Applied Informatics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 98-107, Mar. 2018.
MetricsAbstract Views: 164
PDF Downloads: 100
Copyright (c) 2020 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) after its publication in ETASR with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.